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Chitosan hydrochloride
Last updated: 09/01/2023
(Also known as: chitisan; C00734; poliglusam; deacetylchitin; poliglusam hydrochloride; chitin)

SUMMARY
Citosan is an animal-derived pesticide. There is limited data available for its environmental fate. It has a low mammalian oral toxicity and no significant health effects have been identified. Limited data is available regarding its ecotoxicity but it is known to have a high toxicity to fish.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
 
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: High
Human health
Low alert
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An animal derived fungicide which, structurally, is a straight-chain copolymer composed of D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is used to control root rots and to improve seed germination, root development and general plant health.
Example pests controlled
Root rot
Example applications
-
Efficacy & activity
-
Appearance and life cycle
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
-
Taxonomic classification
-
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Open ended
UK LERAP status
No data
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Greece
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Open ended
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
No
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Known to be used in the following countries
USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₅₆H₁₀₃N₉O₃₉
Canonical SMILES
COC(=O)NC1C(C(C(OC1OC2C(OC(C(C2O)N)OC3C(OC(C(C3O)N)O)CO)CO)CO)OC4C(C(C(C(O4)CO)OC5C(C(C(C(O5)CO)OC6C(C(C(C(O6)CO)OC7C(C(C(C(O7)CO)OC8C(C(C(C(O8)CO)OC9C(C(C(C(O9)CO)O)O)N)O)N)O)N)O)N)O)N)O)N)O
Isomeric SMILES
COC(=O)N[C@@H]1[C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O[C@H]1O[C@@H]2[C@H](O[C@H]([C@@H]([C@H]2O)N)O[C@@H]3[C@H](O[C@H]([C@@H]([C@H]3O)N)O)CO)CO)CO)O[C@H]4[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O4)CO)O[C@H]5[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O5)CO)O[C@H]6[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O6)CO)O[C@H]7[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O7)CO)O[C@H]8[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O8)CO)O[C@H]9[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O9)CO)O)O)N)O)N)O)N)O)N)O)N)O)N)O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
FLASNYPZGWUPSU-SICDJOISSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C56H103N9O39/c1-87-56(86)65-28-38(84)46(19(10-74)96-55(28)104-45-18(9-73)95-49(27(64)37(45)83)97-39-12(3-67)88-47(85)20(57)31(39)77)103-54-26(63)36(82)44(17(8-72)94-54)102-53-25(62)35(81)43(16(7-71)93-53)101-52-24(61)34(80)42(15(6-70)92-52)100-51-23(60)33(79)41(14(5-69)91-51)99-50-22(59)32(78)40(13(4-68)90-50)98-48-21(58)30(76)29(75)11(2-66)89-48/h11-55,66-85H,2-10,57-64H2,1H3,(H,65,86)/t11-,12-,13-,14-,15-,16-,17-,18-,19-,20-,21-,22-,23-,24-,25-,26-,27-,28-,29-,30-,31-,32-,33-,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39-,40-,41-,42-,43-,44-,45-,46-,47-,48+,49+,50+,51+,52+,53+,54+,55+/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
Chitosan Parent
General status
Biopesticide type
Plant Growth Regulator, Nematicide, Fungicide
Substance groups
Animal derived substance
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
EU dossier: Max content of heavy metals: 40 ppm
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
Boosts the ability of plants to defend against fungal infections
Substance source
One of the most common polymers found in nature, derived from crustacean exoskeletons such as lobsters, crabs, and shrimp
Substance production
Produced from harvested, crushed, dried crustacean exoskeletons
Uses
Crop protection
Target pests
Powdery mildews and botrytis species. Also active against some nematodes.
Target host
Many field crops, ornamentals, and turf
Farming system suitability
Suitable for use in organic farming and for IPM where approved for use in that country
CAS RN
9012-76-4
EC number
-
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
128930
PubChem CID
-
Molecular mass
1526.45
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
poly-D-glucosamine
CAS name
β-(1,4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose
Other status information
Approved via EU & UK 'Basic substance' legislation (Article 28 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
White powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Example products
Elexa 4 SafeScience
Clandosan Igene
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as an aqueous suspension or in a pelleted formulation often as a seed treatrment
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
- - -
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.26 X 10-05 Calculated -
Log P
-4.9
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 16000
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Esisenia foetida
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
1000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Esisenia foetida
Low
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Expert judgement
Low
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other bee species (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other bee species (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.05
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 16000
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
No further information available
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H315, H319, H335
WHO Classification
NL (Not listed)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
chitosan hydrochloride
French
chitosan
German
Chitosan
Danish
chitosan
Italian
chitosan
Spanish
chitosan
Greek
-
Polish
chitozan
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 09/01/2023
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242