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Ryanodine
Last updated: 23/02/2022
(Also known as: ryania extract; bonide ryatox; ryanocide; ryania)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
 
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: High
Human health
Moderate alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: Moderate; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Plant derived alkaloid that has insecticidal properties and used to control codling moth, European corn borer and citrus thrips
Example pests controlled
-
Example applications
-
Efficacy & activity
-
Appearance and life cycle
-
Availability status
Considered obsolete but may be available in some countries
Introduction & key dates
1940s discovered, 1968; first registered USA
Taxonomic classification
-
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
No
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Known to be used in the following countries
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Ryanodine is a chiral molecule with three structural isomers.
Chemical formula
C₂₅H₃₅NO₉
Canonical SMILES
CC1CCC2(C3(CC4(C5(C(C(C3(C5(C2(C1O)O4)O)O)OC(=O)C6=CC=CN6)(C(C)C)O)C)O)C)O
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@H]1CC[C@@]2([C@@]3(C[C@]4([C@@]5([C@]([C@H]([C@@]3([C@]5([C@]2([C@@H]1O)O4)O)O)OC(=O)C6=CC=CN6)(C(C)C)O)C)O)C)O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
JJSYXNQGLHBRRK-SFEDZAPPSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1/C25H35NO9/c1-12(2)22(31)17(34-16(28)14-7-6-10-26-14)23(32)18(4)11-21(30)19(22,5)25(23,33)24(35-21)15(27)13(3)8-9-20(18,24)29/h6-7,10,12-13,15,17,26-27,29-33H,8-9,11H2,1-5H3/t13-,15+,17+,18-,19-,20-,21-,22+,23+,24+,25+/m0/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Biopesticide type
Insecticide
Substance groups
Plant derived substance
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
Thought to effect muscle movement by binding to the calcium channels in the sarcoplastic reticulum that eventually leads to death
Substance source
An alkaloid orginially extracted from the stems of various Ryania species including Ryania speciosa which are found in tropical America
Substance production
Extracted directly from ground plant stems
Uses
Crop protection
Target pests
Codling moth, European corn borer, citrus thrips
Target host
Maize, top fruit, citrus fruit
Farming system suitability
Suitable for use in organic farming and for IPM where approved for use in that country
CAS RN
15662-33-6
Alternative/old CAS RN
8047-13-0, 1361-01-9, 1580-06-9, 25800-57-1, 15800-60-9, 94513-55-0
EC number
239-732-2
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
8047-13-0
PubChem CID
-
Molecular mass
493.61
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, (3S,4R,4aR,6S,7S,8R,8aS,8bR,9S,9aS)-dodecahydro-4,6,7,8a,8b,9a-hexahydroxy-3,6a,9-trimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-6,9-methanobenzo[1,2]pentaleno[1,6-bc]furan-8-yl ester
CAS name
3-(1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate) ryanodol
Other status information
1945 Patent No. 2,400,295
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not known
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
White to off-white solid
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Example products
Natur-Gro R50 AgriSystems international
Ryan 50 Dunhill Chemicals
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a water dispersible powder and applied during insect attack
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
16000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
29000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
DMSO
-
Melting point (°C)
219
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
426
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.62 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P
1.75
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Known soil and groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
anhydroxyanodine - - - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1200
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2250
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
3160 ppm
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Colinus virginianus NOEL
-
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 104
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 15.7
E4 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
4 = Verified data
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.044
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1200
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
5000
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 5.1
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 0.32 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Intravenous LDLo = 0.02 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause muscle weakness
Possible lung, thorax and respiratory system toxicant
May cause gastrointestinal problems
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
IMDG Transport Code is 6.1
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
O (Obsolete substance)
UN Number
1544
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
ryanodine
French
ryanodine
German
Ryanodin
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
-
Greek
-
Polish
rianodyna
Swedish
-
Hungarian
rianodin
Dutch
ryanodine

Record last updated: 23/02/2022
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242