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Rotenone (Ref: ENT 133)
Last updated: 23/02/2022
(Also known as: derris root; derris; haiari; barbasco; aker-root)

SUMMARY
A naturally occurring chemical with multiple crop protection applications. It is moderately toxic. It is not environmentally persistent degrading in soil in a few days. It is not expected to leach from soil or contaminate groundwaters. It is highly toxic to all aquatic organisms, earthworms and to honeybees.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: High; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: High; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: High
Human health
Moderate alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: Moderate
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A insecticide within the class of rotenones which is now used mainly in fish management and for the control of a wide range of arthropod pests including aphids, thrips and spider mites. Also has livestock applications.
Example pests controlled
Lice; Ticks; General insect control
Example applications
Fish; Domestic pets; Frui; vegetables; livestock.
Efficacy & activity
-
Appearance and life cycle
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1935
Taxonomic classification
-
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
Not applicable
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
France
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Known to be used in the following countries
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule. The technical material is a misture of the cis- and trans-forms
Chemical formula
C₂₃H₂₂O₆
Canonical SMILES
CC(=C)C1CC2=C(O1)C=CC3=C2OC4COC5=CC(=C(C=C5C4C3=O)OC)OC
Isomeric SMILES
CC(=C)[C@H]1CC2=C(O1)C=CC3=C2O[C@@H]4COC5=CC(=C(C=C5[C@@H]4C3=O)OC)OC
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
JUVIOZPCNVVQFO-HBGVWJBISA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C23H22O6/c1-11(2)16-8-14-15(28-16)6-5-12-22(24)21-13-7-18(25-3)19(26-4)9-17(13)27-10-20(21)29-23(12)14/h5-7,9,16,20-21H,1,8,10H2,2-4H3/t16-,20-,21+/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
rotenone -
General status
Biopesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide, Veterinary substance
Substance groups
Plant derived substance
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
Selective, non-systemic with contact and stomach action. Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitor.
Substance source
Occurs nturally in the roots and stems of several plants of the genus Lonchocarpus and Derris
Substance production
Extracted from plant roots and stablised using phosphoric acid
Uses
Crop protection; public health applications; animal health
Target pests
A wide range of insects including aphids, thrips, beetles, spider mites and mosqiito larvae in water
Target host
Fruit, vegetables, livestock, humans, domestic pets
Farming system suitability
-
CAS RN
83-79-4
EC number
201-501-9
CIPAC number
38
US EPA chemical code
071003
PubChem CID
-
Molecular mass
394.42
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
(2R,6aS,12aS)-1,2,6,6a,12,12a-hexahydro-2-isopropenyl-8,9-dimethoxychromeno[3,4-b]furo[2,3-h]chromen-6-one
CAS name
(2R,6aS,12aS)-1,2,12,12a-tetrahydro-8,9-dimethoxy-2-(1-methylethenyl)(1)benzopyrano(3,4-b)furo(2,3-h)(1)benzopyran-6(6aH)-one
Other status information
Marine Pollutant; Chemical subject to PIC regulations; PAN listed Highly Hazardous Chemical
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
21B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Epilachna varivestis, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Physical state
White powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Example products
Prentox Cube Powder Prentiss Incorporated
Vironone Vipesco
Derris Nantong Shenyu Green Medicine Co., Ltd.
Formulation and application details
Usually formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate or dust
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
15.0
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
163
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
215
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.45 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.16
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
0.67
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.0
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.13 X 10-08
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
2
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
3
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
2.5
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range1.8-3.3 days, 2 field grown crops, various matrices, n=2
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
2.6
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 1.2-4.0 days, 2 field grown crops, various matrices, n=3
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
1.3
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
10000
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 132
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
10
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Dog
High
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2600
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Anas platyrhynchos
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 150
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 0.24
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Apis mellifera
High
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 12
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 0.68
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Bombus terrestris 72hr
High
Literature LD₅₀ values range 0.17-0.97 µg bee⁻¹
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
Harmful
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Parasitic wasp
-
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
Moderately harmful
AA2 AA = IOBC Database on classification of side effects to beneficial organisms, 2005
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0019
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.0012
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss 32 day LOEC
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.004
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.001
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.0057
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
High
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 132
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
5000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.019
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intravenous LD₅₀ = 0.20 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ = 20.0 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Moderately toxic
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9 or 6.1
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H315, H319, H335
Environment: H400, H410
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
2588 for active, products usually 2811
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group II (medium danger) or III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
rotenone
French
rotenone
German
Rotenon
Danish
rotenon
Italian
rotenone
Spanish
rotenona
Greek
-
Polish
rotenon
Swedish
rotenon
Hungarian
-
Dutch
rotenon

Record last updated: 23/02/2022
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242