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carbofuran (Ref: OMS 864)
** ENT 27164 ** FMC 10242 ** BAY 70143 ** D 1221 ** Translations

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SUMMARY

Carbofuran is an insecticide and nematicide that is not approved for use in the EU. It is moderately soluble in water, is relatively volatile and, based on its chemical properties, has a high potential for leaching to groundwater. It is not persistent in soil but may persist in water under some conditions. Carbofuran has a high mammalian toxicity and a low potential for bioaccumulation. It is an endocrine disruptor and a probable reproduction/development intoxicant. It is highly toxic to birds and honeybees whilst having a moderate to high toxicity to most aquatic organisms. It is moderately toxic to earthworms.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for carbofuran

Description: A insecticide and nematicide for soil treatment to control soil and foliar pests. Also a pesticide transformation product

Example pests controlled: Spidermites; Nematodes; Aphids; Corn rootworms; Weevils; European corn borer; Beetles

Example applications: Potatoes; Corn; Rice; Soybean; Fruit including citrus, grapes; Vegetables; Cotton; Alfalfa

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current, Banned

Introduction & key dates: circa 1965

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Belgium
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Insecticide, Nematicide, Acaricide, Metabolite
Metabolite Type Soil
Substance group Carbamate
Minimum active substance purity 960-980 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic with contact and stomach action. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN 1563-66-2
EC number 216-353-0
CIPAC number 276
US EPA chemical code 090601
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C12H15NO3
SMILES CC2(C)CC1=C(C(=CC=C1)OC(NC)=O)O2
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) DUEPRVBVGDRKAG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C12H15NO3/c1-12(2)7-8-5-4-6-9(10(8)16-12)15-11(14)13-3/h4-6H,7H2,1-3H3,(H,13,14)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 221.26
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate
IUPAC name 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate
CAS name 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate
Other status information Chemical subject to PIC regulations; Marine Pollutant
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 1A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Aphis gossypii
Myzus persicae
Plutella xylostella
Delia antiqua
plus others
Physical state White crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms -

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
furathiocarb Soil   0.800   Major fraction, Relevant
carbosulfan Soil   0.880   Major fraction, Relevant
benfuracarb Soil   0.846   Major fraction, Relevant

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • FMC Chemicals
  • Arysta LifeScience EAME
  • Nihon Nohyaku
  • Pillar International
Example products using this active
  • Furadan 5G
  • Diafuran 5G
  • Curaterr
  • Yaltox
  • Pillarfuran
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use or outside scope
Formulation and application details Usually formulated as granules or microgranules for direct incorporation into the soil at drilling.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for carbofuran

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 322 A5 Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 110 A5 - n-Heptane -
71700 A5 - Methanol -
61500 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
105200 A5 - Acetone -
Melting point (oC) 153.1 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) 254 A4 - -
Degradation point (oC) 276 A4 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 6.31 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P 1.8 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.26 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 0.08 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 5.0 X 10-05 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 2.28 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 6.59 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 276nm = 2800, 290nm = 251; [Acidic & basic solution: No significant differences in spectrum A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 54.7 A4 at 20oC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 29 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 12.8 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 14 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier Lab studies DT50 range 5.7-22.7 days, field studies DT50 range 1.3-27 days; Other sources DT50 30-60 days (L3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 4.9 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.9-11.5 days, 6 field crops, various matrices, n=7
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 6.8 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 2.3-12.5 days, 6 field crops, various matrices, n=7
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 71 A5 Stable
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 37 A5 Moderately persistent
Note pH sensitive: stable at pH 4, DT50 28-46 days at pH 7, 0.1 day at pH 9
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 9.7 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 6.1 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 1.14 A5 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 86.5
1/n 0.89
Notes and range EU dossier kf range 0.096-4.77 mL/g, Kfoc range 9.7-433 mL/g, 1/n range 0.725-1.01, Soils=14
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
3-hydroxycarbofuran Soil   0.008   Minor fraction, Relevant
3-ketocarbofuran Soil   0.062   Minor fraction, Relevant
2,3.dihydro-2,2-diemethyl-7-benzofuranol (Ref: NIA 10272 ) Soil   0.090   Minor fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
- 3-keto-7-phenol Rat - -
- N-OH methylcarbofuran Rat (Urinary) - -
- 3-OH-N-OH methylcarbofuran Rat (Urinary) - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for carbofuran

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 12 A5 Whole fish Low potential
CT50 (days) 0.5 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 7 A5 Rat High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 0.1 A5 Rat, 2 year High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 0.71 A5 Anas platyrhynchos High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 1.6 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A5 Anas platyrhynchos -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.18 A5 Lepomis macrochirus Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0022 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 28 day Growth High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.0094 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.008 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.016 F3 Chironomus riparius, 1 day High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.004 A5 Chironomus riparius High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 6.5 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 3.2 Q2 Unknown species Low
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 0.036 A5 High
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 0.05 A5 High
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 224 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) > 0.84 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 2.68 LD50
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi, adult
-
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 3.65 LD50
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, protonymph
-
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: -20% effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 16 mg Diafuran SG product/kg soil, day 42
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for carbofuran

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 7 A5 Rat High
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 1000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.05 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.00015 A5 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.00015 A5 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.0003 A2 Rat, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 3.0-10 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits [LT TWA 8hr: 0.1 mg/m3] Occupation Exposure -
Exposure Routes Public Bystander exposure risk is low due to formulation of products and soil incorporation
Occupational Negligible risk to operators and other farm works due to dust-free formulation and application method
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues May cause testicular degeneration
May be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through skin
Endocrine issues - Increase of progesterone, cortisol and estradiol levels

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
Corrosive
Containers may explode in heat of fire
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013 Health: H300, H330
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases T+ - Very toxic: R26/28
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S1/2, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification Ib - Highly hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) I, II - Danger - Highly toxic, Warning - Moderately toxic
UN Number 2757
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group I (great danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for carbofuran

Language Name
English carbofuran
French carbofuran
German Carbofuran
Danish carbofuran
Italian carbofuran
Spanish carbofurano
Greek carbofuran
Slovenian karbofuran
Polish karbofuran
Swedish -
Hungarian karbofuran
Dutch carbofuraan

Record last updated: Monday 08 January 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
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