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ethephon
** chlorethephon ** 2-CEPA ** 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid ** Translations

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GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for ethephon

Description: A plant growth regulator with a range of uses including the prevention of lodging in cereals and promotion of pre-harvest ripening of fruit.

Example pests controlled: Lodging

Example applications: Cereals; Fruit including pineapples, bush fruit; Coffee; Ornamentals; Tobacco; Rubber

Efficacy & activity: Efficiacy demonstrated from long-term field use

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1982

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Netherlands/Poland
Date inclusion expires 31/07/2019
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C2H6ClO3P
Canonical SMILES C(CCl)P(=O)(O)O
Isomeric SMILES None
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) UDPGUMQDCGORJQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C2H6ClO3P/c3-1-2-7(4,5)6/h1-2H2,(H2,4,5,6)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Plant growth regulator
Substance group Ethylene generator
Minimum active substance purity 910 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - 1,2-dichloroethane; MEPHA
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic
CAS RN 16672-87-0
EC number 240-718-3
CIPAC number 373
US EPA chemical code 099801
PubChem CID 27982
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 144.49
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid
IUPAC name 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid
CAS name (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • BASF
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Kingtai Chemicals
  • Globachem
  • Union Carbide
Example products using this active
  • Cerone
  • Cyclade
  • Sypex
  • Terpal
  • Upgrade
  • Forgrow
  • Florel
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Often supplied as a liquid concentrate for dilution and use as a foliar spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for ethephon

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 1000000 A4 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 300 A5 - n-Heptane -
600000 A5 - Methanol -
600000 A5 - Acetone -
600000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
Melting point (oC) 73.3 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 110 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) 111 A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.29 X 10-02 Calculated -
Log P -1.89 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.65 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 2.82 A5 -
Note: pKa(2) 7.21
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 1.0 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.45 X 10-07 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.66 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.09 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 No absorption 225-800nm, 200nm=25 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 98.5 A5 at 20oC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 13.1 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 13.1 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 13.5 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 71.0 A5 -
DT90 (field) 60.9 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU 2017 dossier lab studies range 2.7-57.8 days, DT90 range 11.7-289 days, Soils=7; field studies DT50 range 4.7-28.4 days, DT90 range 24.2-105.2 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 40.4 A5 Stable
Note DT50 29.4 days in the light, 51.4 days in the dark
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 2.5 A5 Non-persistent
Note pH sensitive: 99.1 days at pH 5, 1.4 days at pH 9, 20 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 2.8 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 2.4 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 29.9 A5 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 2540
1/n 0.992
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 2.37-57.33 mL/g, Kfoc range 608-4078 mL/g, 1/n range 0.977-1.007, Soils=5
pH sensitivity No

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
ethylene gas - Soil (Aerobic) - -
2-hydroxy ethyl phosphonic acid - Soil (Photolysis) - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for ethephon

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) Low risk A5 Based on LogP < 3 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 1564 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 22 A4 Mice High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 764 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 450 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 100 A4 Cyprinus carpio Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 43 A4 Pimephales promelas, 34 day Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 90.4 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 67 A5 Daphnia magna Low
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 1.5 A5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants 134 A5 cucumber
Vegetative vigour ER50
as g/ha
-
187 A5 mustard
Seedling emergence ER50
as g/ha
-
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 2.86 A5 Navicula pelliculosa Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Apis mellifera Low
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 116.5 A5 Apis mellifera Low
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 165.4 A4 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) >= 200 A5 Eisenia foetida, 56 days Low
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 465 >
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect 87.2 Mortality
Dose: 0.726 kg ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 726 =
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect Moderately harmful Mortality
Dose: 0.726 kg ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for ethephon

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 1564 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) 983 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 3.26 A5 Rat 4 hr (whole body) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.02 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.05 A5 Human, SF=10 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) 1.7 A5 Rat, SF=300 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.02 A5 Dog SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 1.0-5.0 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public No unacceptable risks to bystanders identified
Occupational Risk acceptable with PPE/PPC
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues May cause cardiac abnormalities

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Corrosive
Not explosive or oxidising
Hygroscopic
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H311, H314, H315, H332, H335
Environment: H411
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R20/21
H - Handling risks: R34
N - Dangerous for the environment: R52, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S1/2, S26, S28, S36/37/39, S45, S61
WHO Classification III - Slightly hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) I - Danger - Highly toxic
UN Number Usually 2928 or 3261
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group II (medium danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for ethephon

Language Name
English ethephon
French ethephon
German Ethephon
Danish ethephon
Italian etefon
Spanish etefon
Greek ethephon
Slovenian etefon
Polish etefon
Swedish etefon
Hungarian etefon
Dutch ethefon

Record last updated: Friday 02 November 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
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