IUPAC AGROCHEMICAL
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formaldehyde
** formalin ** methanal ** methyl aldehyde ** methylene oxide ** paraformaldehyde ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION
for formaldehyde

Description: Used as a disinfectant for soil, equipment, yards etc. and will kill most bacteria and fungi. Also used as an animal husbandry fungicide. Can also be a pesticide transformation product

Introduction: 1888

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur -
Date inclusion expires Expired

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries:

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also registered in: USA

General status:
Pesticide type Fungicide, Bactericide, Metabolite, Other product constituent
Metabolite Type Soil, Water
Other constituent type Inert solvent
Substance group Unclassified
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Acts by protein denaturation
CAS RN 50-00-0
EC number 200-001-8
CIPAC number 156
US EPA chemical code 043001
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula CH2O
SMILES C=O
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1/CH2O/c1-2/h1H2
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 30.03
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name formaldehyde
CAS name formaldehyde
Other status information Listed on USA Toxic Release Inventory; Registered as a UK Commodity Substance
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Physical state Gas
Related substances & organisms -

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 91/414 relevancy
daminozide Soil   0.210   Major fraction, Not relevant
bronopol Soil     Not relevant
dazomet Soil   0.205   Major fraction, Relevant

Formulations:
Property Value
Example manufacturers of products using this active -
Example products using this active
  • Formalin Fungicide
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Often used as a dip, drench or spray treatment. May also be used as a fumigant to sterilise animal houses.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for formaldehyde

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 550000 C4 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) Miscible C4 - Acetone -
Melting point (oC) -117 P3 -
Boiling point (oC) -20 V3 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) 50 V3 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.24 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P 0.35 V3 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 0.82 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 13.27 V3 -
Note: Strong base
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 53300000 C4 Volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.41 X 10-02 V3 Non-volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 1.19 X 10-03 Calculated Volatile
GUS leaching potential index 1.89 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 1.64 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 6 Q2 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 1.9 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note Other sources: DT50 2-20 days
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable P2 Very persistent
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd - A3 Mobile
Koc 37
Notes and range Other sources: DT50 2-20 days
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for formaldehyde

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF 0.2 Q2 Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Bioaccumulation potential - Calculated Low
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 550 L3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - Q2 Unknown species -
(ppm diet) 50 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 F4 Anas platyrhynchos Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 1.84 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 0.43 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 0.88 A4 Unknown species Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees - Acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for formaldehyde

General:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 550 L3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) 270 L3 Rabbit (formulation) -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.414 L3 Mouse -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits [TWA 8hr: 2ppm], [STEL: 2ppm] - -
Exposure Routes Public Most probable exposure route is via inhalation
Occupational Most probable exposure route is via inhalation - PPE/PPC essential
Examples of European MRLs (mg kg-1) Value -
Note For the EU pesticides database click here
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Eye irritant

-

-

General human health issues Severe obstructive tracheobronchitis may result from inhalation causing throat spasms and a build up of fluid in the lungs, leading to death

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data

Handling issues:
Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General Flammable gas
Reacts explosively with peroxides and performic acid
IMDG Tranport class 3
CLP classification 2013 -
EC Risk Classification Carcinogen category 3: R40
T - Toxic: R23/24/25
Xn - Harmful: R43
H - Handling risks: R34
EC Safety Classification S1/2, S26, S36/37/39, S45, S51
WHO Classification FM - Fumigant, not classified
US EPA Classification (formulation) - -
UN Number 1198
Waste disposal & packaging Packaging group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for formaldehyde

Language Name
English formaldehyde
French formaldehyde
German Formaldehyd
Danish formaldehyd
Italian formaldeide
Spanish formaldehído
Greek -
Slovenian formaldehid
Polish formaldehyd
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch formaldehyde

Record last updated: Tuesday 22 July 2014
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
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