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Malathion (Ref: OMS 1)
Last updated: 02/07/2019
(Also known as: carbophos; maldison; mercaptothion; carbofos; ENT 17034)

SUMMARY
Malathion is an insecticide approved for use in the EU and in many other countries. It is moderately soluble in water and readily soluible in many organic solvents. It is quite volatile and has a low potential for leaching to groundwater. Malathion is not usually persistent in soil or water systems. It is moderately toxic to mammals, a cholineserase inhibitor and a neurotoxin. Malathion is highly toxic to honey bees and aquatic species with the exception of algae. It is moderately toxic to birds and earthworms.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An insecticide and acaricide used to control a wide range of pests
Example pests controlled
Coleoptera; Diptera; Hemiptera; Lepidoptera; Mosquitoes; Fruit flies; Aphids; Mealybugs; Leaf hoppers; Spidermites
Example applications
Vegetables including turnips; Public health applications; Ornamental trees and shrubs; Stored produce
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1952, first reported
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Czech Republic/Bulgaria
Date inclusion expires
30/04/2022
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
No
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
           
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
             
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
           
Also used in
Also used in
USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule existing as two enantiomers
Chemical formula
C₁0H₁₉O₆PS₂
Canonical SMILES
CCOC(=O)CC(C(=O)OCC)SP(=S)(OC)OC
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
JXSJBGJIGXNWCI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H19O6PS2/c1-5-15-9(11)7-8(10(12)16-6-2)19-17(18,13-3)14-4/h8H,5-7H2,1-4H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide, Veterinary substance
Substance group
Organophosphate
Minimum active substance purity
950 g kg⁻¹ (racemic mixture)
Known relevant impurities
EU dossier - malaoxon <1g kg⁻¹, isomalathion <2g kg⁻¹, MeOOSPS-triester <15g kg⁻¹, MeOOOPS-triester 5g kg⁻¹
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Broad-spectrum, non-systemic with contact, stomach and respiratory action. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN
121-75-5
EC number
204-497-7
CIPAC number
12
US EPA chemical code
057701
PubChem CID
4004
Molecular mass
330.36
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
diethyl (dimethoxyphosphinothioylthio)succinate
CAS name
diethyl ((dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)thio)butanedioate
Other status information
Marine Pollutant; Evidence of use in third world countries; Chemical subject to PIC regulations; Phytotoxic to some ornamentals including orchids, ferns and petunias
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
UK statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life in inland waters and for surface water quality: 0.01 µg l⁻¹ as annual average conc.
UK statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life in coastal and territorial waters: 0.02 µg l⁻¹ as annual average conc.
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
1B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Aedes aegypti, Amblyseius fallacis, Aphis gossypii, Culex restuans, Aedes caspius, many more
Physical state
Clear to amber liquid
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Fyfanon 440
  • Karbofos
  • Cythion
  • Maltox
  • Malixol
  • Cekumal
Example products using this active
  • Cheminova A/S
  • FMC Chemicals
  • Headland
  • Nickerson
  • American Cyanamid
  • Farmoplant
UK LERAP status
None
Formulation and application details
Often supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder or ULV
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
148
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
250000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Xylene
-
62000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Heptane
-
250000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Acetone
-
250000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Methanol
-
Melting point (°C)
-20
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Degradation point (°C)
174
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Flashpoint (°C)
173
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.62 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.75
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.23
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
Not applicable
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20 °C
3.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C
1.00 X 10-03
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index
0.00 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
3.94 X 10-04 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
No absorbance above 290nm
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
58.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
at 20°C
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
0.17
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
0.17
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
0.63
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
EU dossier lab studies range DT₅₀ 0.1-0.25 days, DT₉₀ range 0.3-0.84 days; Other sources: DT₅₀ 1.0 days (DW4)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
2.4
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 0.4-4.5 days, 10 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=11
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
4.3
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 0.3-19.5 days, 26 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=42; Stored corn RL₅₀=112 days.
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
98
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Stable
Note
DT₅₀ 156 days under test conditions - not natural light (A5)
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
6.2
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
Note
pH sensitive: DT₅₀ 107 days at pH 5, 0.49 days at pH 9, all at 25 °C
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
0.4
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
0.4
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Fast
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
DW2 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Slightly mobile
Koc
1800
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
1.58
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately mobile
Kfoc
217
1/n
0.94
Notes and range
EU dossier kf range 0.83-2.47 mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 151-308 mL g⁻¹, 1/n range 0.904-0.978, Soils=5
pH sensitivity
No
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
malathion monocarboxylic acid (Ref: MMCA)
Soil 0.25 Major fraction, Relevant
malathion dicarboxylic acid
Soil 0.62 Major fraction, Relevant
isomalathion
On heating - Relevant
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
diethyl (2RS)-2-[(dimethoxyphosphoryl)sulfanyl]butanedioate
Note: Considerably more toxic than malathion
Malaoxon Plant; Animal - -
desmethyl malathion DMM Plant - -
malathion dicarboxylic acid DCA Human (Liver) - -
malathion monocarboxylic acid DMA Human (Liver) - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
103
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
(Other literature Log BCF range 0-3.7 (R3))
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
0.69 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1778
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
34.4
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
High
(ppm diet)
- -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
359
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
554 mg kg bw⁻¹ day⁻¹
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Colinus virginianus
-
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.018
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.091
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0007
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.00006
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0015
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.0004
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Chironomus riparius 1 day
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
> 1800
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
six species
Vegetative vigour, ER₅₀
as g ha⁻¹
-
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
13
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Raphidocelis subcapitata EU dossier EC₅₀ = 4.1 Unknown species
Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
0.16
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
High
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
0.40
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
High
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
0.0005
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Megachile rotundata
High
Mode of exposure
Contact
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
0.265
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Trigona spinipes
High
Mode of exposure
Contact
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
306
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Eisenia foetida corr
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
0.061 48 hour
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
85.4
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes

Dose: 6.3 kg ha⁻¹
-
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
0.030
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Aquatic invertebrates
-
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1778
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 5.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat 4 hr
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 250 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Intravenous LD₅₀ = 50 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.03
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat SF=1000
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.3
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat SF=100
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.03
A2 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat SF=1000
-
Dermal penetration studies (%)
5.0-15.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
concentration dependent
-
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I; List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Possible concerns for bystanders especially children should they enter a sprayed area
Occupational
Operators should use PPC/PPE at all times
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A2 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
2 = Mixed/ambiguous results
;
B3 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
C3 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E2 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
2 = Mixed/ambiguous results
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Possible adrenal gland, thyroid and liver toxicant
Acetylcholinesterase inhibition
IARC group 2A carcinogen; USEPA - some evidence to suggest possible human carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Inhibition of catecholamine secretion
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Prevent generation of mists
Store at low temperatures, do not heat
Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H317
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22, R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S24, S37, S46, S60, S61
WHO Classification
III (Slightly hazardous)
UN Number
Usually 2783
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
malathion
French
malathion
German
Malathion
Danish
malathion
Italian
malation
Spanish
malation
Greek
malathion
Polish
malation
Swedish
-
Hungarian
malathion
Dutch
malathion

Record last updated: 02/07/2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242