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PhD Oportunity with Syngenta & the University of Hertfordshire

chlormequat chloride (Ref: BAS 062W)
** chlormequat ** AC 38555 ** 2-chloroethyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride ** chlorocholine chloride ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Chlormequat chloride is a plant growth regulator that is approved for use in the EU. It is highly soluble in water and has a low volatility. It tends not to be persistent insoil or water systems. It has a moderate mammalian oral toxicity and there are someconcerns regarding its potential to damage reproduction or infant development. It demonstrates moderate to low ecotoxicity for most species.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for chlormequat chloride

Description: A plant growth regulator used on cereals to increase resistance to lodging

Example pests controlled: Lodging; Cell elongation

Example applications: Cereals including wheat, triticale, barley, rye; Ornamentals including geraniums, pelargoniums, poinsetta; vegetables including tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower, radish

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1966, Germany

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur UK
Date inclusion expires 30/11/2019
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Plant growth regulator
Substance group Quarternary ammonium compound
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - 1,2-dichloroethane <0.1 g/kg, chloroethene <0.0004 g/l
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Inhibits cell elongation
CAS RN 999-81-5
EC number 213-666-4
CIPAC number 143.302
US EPA chemical code 018101
PubChem CID 13836
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C5H13Cl2N
Canonical SMILES C[N+](C)(C)CCCl.[Cl-]
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) UHZZMRAGKVHANO-UHFFFAOYSA-M
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C5H13ClN.ClH/c1-7(2,3)5-4-6;/h4-5H2,1-3H3;1H/q+1;/p-1
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 158.07
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium chloride
IUPAC name 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride
CAS name 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride
Other status information Potential groundwater contaminant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White hydroscopic crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • AgriGuard
  • BASF
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Greencrop
  • Mandops
  • Nufarm UK
Example products using this active
  • New 5C Cyclocel
  • Stronghold
  • Sypex
  • Terpal
  • Upgrade
  • Upright
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a soluble concentrate that is mixed with water and applied as a spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for chlormequat chloride

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 886000 A5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 365000 A5 - Methanol -
10 A5 - n-Heptane -
130 A5 - Acetone -
10 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
Melting point (oC) 225 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 240 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 3.39 X 10-04 Calculated -
Log P -3.47 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity - - -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: Complete dissociation
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 1.0 X 10-03 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.16 X 10-10 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 2.57 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.39 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 No significant absorption from 200-750nm A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 72.3 A5 at 20oC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 27.4 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 23.2 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 7 Y4 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 102.1 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier lab studies DT50 range 17.0-31.6 days, DT90 range 88.9-112.5 days; Confirmatory data DT50 11.0-44.7 days, soils=7. Other sources: DT50 14 days (DW3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 4.2 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 3.9-4.5 days, 2 field crops, various matrices, n=2
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable at pH 5 to pH 9 up to 50 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 3.75 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 0.5 A5 Fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 2.04 A5 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 132
1/n 0.74
Notes and range EU dossier kf range 0.63-4.57 mL/g, Kfoc range 54.6-291.1 mL/g, 1/n range 0.51-0.99, Soils=8
pH sensitivity No

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
choline chloride
(Ref: )
Note: A5
- Rat (Urinary) 0.03 -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for chlormequat chloride

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 0.01 Q2 Estimated Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 115 A5 Rabbit Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 50 L2 Rat, 2 year High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 441 A5 Coturnix japonica Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 310 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A5 Coturnix japonica -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 100 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 43.1 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 31.7 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 2.4 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 5.3 A5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 100 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 65.2 A5 Moderate
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 80.2 A5 Moderate
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 320 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 681 A5 Eisenia foetida Low
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 2200 >
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 2250 >
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogten mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 18.6 mg kg-1 soil, 28 days
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for chlormequat chloride

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 115 A5 Rabbit Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) 964 A5 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 5.2 A5 Rat, 4 hr (aerosol) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.04 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.09 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.04 A5 Rabbit, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 4.0 A5 -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Acceptable risk for bystanders
Occupational Acceptable risk for workers
Operators should wear PPC/PPE to protect against potential exposure
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Highly toxic

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Prevent generation of dust
May emit irritating, toxic fumes in a fire
Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 8
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H312
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R21/22
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S36/37
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Usually 1760
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for chlormequat chloride

Language Name
English chlormequat chloride
French chlormequat
German Chlormequat
Danish chlormequat-chlorid
Italian clormequat
Spanish cloruro de clormecuat
Greek chlormequat chloride
Slovenian klormekvat klorid
Polish chlorek chloromekwatu
Swedish klormekvatklorid
Hungarian chlormequat
Dutch chloormequatchloride

Record last updated: Tuesday 22 May 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk