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Chlorotoluron (Ref: C 2242)
Last updated: 12/01/2021
(Also known as: chlortoluron; CTU)

SUMMARY
Chloroturon is a commonly used urea herbicide that is approved for use in the EU. It is moderately soluble in water, volatile with a high potential for leaching to groundwater. It is moderately persistent in soil but tends not to be persistent in water due to rapid aqueous photolysis. Chloroturon has a low mammalian toxicity but may bioaccumulate. Whilst it is non-toxic to honeybees it is moderately toxic to birds, earthworms and most aquatic organisms.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A contact and residual urea herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds and grasses
Example pests controlled
Annual meadow grass; Black-grass; Nightshade; bindweed; Chickweed; Fat hen; Marigold; Speedwells; Knotgrass; Hemp-nettle; Dead-nettle; Common poppy; Mayweed
Example applications
Cereals including wheat, barley, rye, triticale; Potatoes; Maize; Vegetables including onions, carrot, parsnip; Fruit including blackcurrant, apples, pears, chrries, strawberry, gooseberry
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1994
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Pending
Date COPR inclusion expires
31/10/2024
UK LERAP status
None
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 1107/2009 status
Pending
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Belgium/France
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
31/10/2021
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Yes - two 'Persistent-Bioaccumulative-Toxic' criteria
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
   
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
     
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
     
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₀H₁₃ClN₂O
Canonical SMILES
CC1=C(C=C(C=C1)NC(=O)N(C)C)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
-
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
JXCGFZXSOMJFOA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H13ClN2O/c1-7-4-5-8(6-9(7)11)12-10(14)13(2)3/h4-6H,1-3H3,(H,12,14)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
chlorotoluron -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance group
Urea
Minimum active substance purity
975 g kg⁻¹
Known relevant impurities
EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, non-systemic absorbed by roots and foliage. Acts by the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport.
CAS RN
15545-48-9
EC number
239-592-2
CIPAC number
217
US EPA chemical code
216500
PubChem CID
27375
Molecular mass
212.68
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
N'-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-N,N-dimethylurea
IUPAC name
3-(3-chloro-p-tolyl)-1,1-dimethylurea
CAS name
N'-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-N,N-dimethylurea
Other status information
Marine Pollutant; Potential groundwater contaminant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
UK Environment Agency non-statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life: freshwater and saltwater annual average 2.0 µg l⁻¹, Freshwater max acceptable conc 20.0 µg l⁻¹
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
C2
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
7
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Alopecurus myosuroides
Physical state
-
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Tolerate
  • Alpha Chlortoluron 500
  • Tolugan
  • Tolugan Extra
  • Dicurane
Example products using this active
  • Clayton
  • Headland
  • Makhteshim-Agan
  • Nufarm UK
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a soluble concentrate or wettable granules that are mixed with water and applied as a spray
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
- - -
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
- - -
Log P
- - -
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
Cannot be calculated - -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
- - -
Potential for loss via drain flow
- - -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
3-(3-chloro-p-tolyl)-1-methylurea
Soil 0.300 Major fraction, Not relevant
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
1-(3-chloro-4-p-tolyl)urea - Soil - -
3-chloro-4-methylaniline - Soil - -
chlorotoluron benzoic acid - Water 0.251 -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
Low risk
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Based on LogP < 3
Low risk
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
> 5
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
High
(ppm diet)
> 100 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
95
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat Reproductive NOAEL
Moderate
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
272
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Coturnix japonica
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
> 2150 mg kg feed⁻¹
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Coturnix japonica
-
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
88
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Coturnix japonica NOEC
Moderate
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
20
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.4
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
67
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
16.7
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.038
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.024
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Scenedemus subspicatus
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.001
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Green alaga
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
200 µg bee⁻¹ as formulated product
Low
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
88.7
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
177.4 µg bee⁻¹ as formulated product
Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
No adverse effects Mortality [Dose: 2.45 kg ha⁻¹]
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
No adverse effects Mortality [Dose: 2.45 kg ha⁻¹]
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
Soil micro-organisms
Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes

Dose: 3.5 kg ha⁻¹; 83 days
-
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 5.3
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat (nose only)
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.04
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat SF=100
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
None allocated
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.215
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Acceptable risk to bystanders for proposed uses
Occupational
Acceptable risk to operators and other workers for proposed uses
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.03 mg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Kidney and liver tumors have been observed in Mouse at high doses
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Not explosive
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013
Health: H351, H361d
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
Xn - Harmful: R63
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S26, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
Variable with product, usually 3077 or 3082
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
chlorotoluron
French
chlortoluron
German
Chlortoluron
Danish
chlorotoluron
Italian
clorotoluron
Spanish
clortoluron
Greek
chlorotoluron
Polish
chlorotoluron
Swedish
-
Hungarian
chlortoluron
Dutch
chloortoluron

Record last updated: 12/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242