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urea
** carbamide ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for urea

Description: Normally thought of as a nitrogen fertiliser, however, it is also used to control certain insect and wood rotting pests

Example pests controlled: Olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae); Conifer root & butt rot (Heterobasidion annosum

Example applications: Olive trees; Conifers; Pines; Wood structures

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1773, discovered

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Greece
Date inclusion expires 31/08/2019

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide, Insecticide, Microbiocide, Wood preservative
Other constituent type Fertiliser, Wood preservative
Substance group Inorganic compound
Minimum active substance purity 98% w/w
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Unclear but thought to be related to elevation in pH and ammonia levels as urea degrades
CAS RN 57-13-6
EC number 200-315-5
CIPAC number 913
US EPA chemical code 085702
Chiral molecule No
Chemical formula CH4N2O
SMILES C(N)(N)=O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) XSQUKJJJFZCRTK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/CH4N2O/c2-1(3)4/h(H4,2,3,4)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 60.06
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name urea
CAS name urea
Other status information -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) None
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) None
Examples of recorded resistance None identified
Physical state White solid with ammoniacal odour
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • BASF
  • Dalgety Agriculture Ltd
  • Hydro Agri
Example products using this active -
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use or outside scope
Formulation and application details -


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for urea

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 590000 F4 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) - - -
Melting point (oC) 134 O3 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling F4 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) 73 O2 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.57 X 10-03 Calculated -
Log P -2.59 F4 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.32 Q3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 13.90 Q3 -
Note: Data as pKb
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) - - -
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) - - -
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) - - -
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index - - -
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value - - -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) - - -
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note Soil nutrient - main mode of degradation is via enzymatic mineralisation
Plant matrix DT50 (days) Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - F4 Very mobile
Koc 14
Notes and range In high peat soils Koc ~ 0.79 mL/g
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity No but adsorption increases with organic carbon


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for urea

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) Low risk Q3 Based on LogP < 3 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 8471 F4 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 17500 O3 Poecilia reticulata Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 10000 O3 Daphnia magna Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 10.7 J3 Unknown species Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for urea

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class Low (class I) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 8471 F4 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 8200 O3 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.022 F3 (Dust exposure) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational -
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues May cause gastrointestinal irritation, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
May cause cardiac disturbances

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes May form explosive products with chlorinating substances
CLP classification 2013 None allocated at this time
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 3: R40
Xi- Irritant: 36/37/38
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S24/25, S26, S36
WHO Classification NL - Not listed
US EPA Classification (formulation) - -
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for urea

Language Name
English urea
French -
German -
Danish -
Italian -
Spanish -
Greek -
Slovenian -
Polish -
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Friday 11 March 2016
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk