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Dichlorophen
Last updated: 11/01/2021
(Also known as: antiphen; anthifen)

SUMMARY
Dichlorophen is a fungicide, herbicide, bactericide and algicide that is not approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility and, based on its chemical properties, it is unlikely to leach to groundwater. It is not usually persistent in soils. Dichlorophen has a low mammalian toxicity but is moderately toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A multiple purpose pesticide used to control various infections in agricultural and horticultural crops as well as in non-crop situations . Also has some applications as a veterinary treatment.
Example pests controlled
Red thread; Fusarium patch; Stem canker; Angular leaf spot; Cucumber wilt; Damping off; Root rot; Bulb riot; Web blotch
Example applications
Cotton; Peanuts; Potatoes; Vegetables including beans, onions, garlic; Tomatoes; Cucumbers; Ornamentals; Non-crop situations
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Unknown
Introduction & key dates
First patented 1944 USA
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Ireland
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₁₃H₁₀Cl₂O₂
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC(=C(C=C1Cl)CC2=C(C=CC(=C2)Cl)O)O
Isomeric SMILES
Clc1cc(c(O)cc1)Cc2cc(Cl)ccc2O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
MDNWOSOZYLHTCG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C13H10Cl2O2/c14-10-1-3-12(16)8(6-10)5-9-7-11(15)2-4-13(9)17/h1-4,6-7,16-17H,5H2
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
dichlorophen -
General status
Pesticide type
Fungicide, Algicide, Bactericide, Veterinary substance
Substance group
Hetrocyclic
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Contact
CAS RN
97-23-4
EC number
202-567-1
CIPAC number
325
US EPA chemical code
055001
PubChem CID
3037
Molecular mass
269.1
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
2,2'-methylenebis(4-chlorophenol)
IUPAC name
4,4'-dichloro-2,2'-methylenediphenol
CAS name
2,2'-methylenebis[4-chlorophenol]
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not known
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Preventol
Example products using this active
  • Sindar
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate from crop protection purposes. As an animal insecticide formulations include cutaneous sprays, tablets for oral administration and shampoos
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
30
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
800000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Acetone
-
530000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Ethanol
-
540000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Isopropanol
-
Melting point (°C)
177.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.70 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.23
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.42
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
7.6
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
pKa(2) 11.6, Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.30 X 10-05
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.17 X 10-07
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
13
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Non-mobile
Koc
4103
Notes and range
Estimated
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
0.43 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
8.36 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
45.4
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2690
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
(ppm diet)
2000 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.54
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Oncorhynchus mykiss 48 hour
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.154
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Pimephales promelas
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
6.2
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
10
F1 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Unknown species
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2690
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
1000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intravenous DT₅₀ = 17.0 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
Occupational
Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
 
General human health issues
Moderately toxic
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H319
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22
Xi - Irritant: R36 N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S26, S60, S61
WHO Classification
III (Slightly hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
dichlorophen
French
dichlorophene
German
Dichlorophen
Danish
dichlorophen
Italian
diclorofene
Spanish
diclorofen
Greek
dichlorophen
Polish
dichlorofen
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
dichlorofeen

Record last updated: 11/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242