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lindane (Ref: OMS 17)
** gamma-HCH ** HCH ** gamma-BHC ** gamma-HKhTsH ** ENT 8601 ** pesticide 666 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home
Further data may be found in the VSDB

SUMMARY

Lindane in an insecticide and acaricide that no longer has approval for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility by is readly soluble in organic solvents. It is quite volatile and has a high potential for leaching to groundwater. it can be very persistent in soil and water systems. Lindane is moderately toxic to mammals and may be a neurotoxin. It is also a recognised irritant. It is highly toxic to fish and honeybees and moderately toxic to most other species.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for lindane

Description: A broad spectrum insecticide used mainly as a seed treatment to control phytophagous and soil-inhabiting insects

Example pests controlled: Soil-dwelling and plant eating insects

Example applications: Fruit and vegetable crops; Forestry; Public health applications; Tobacco; Timber

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1945; First prepared in 1825

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Austria
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism Lindane is the gamma-isomer of benzene hexachloride which is a chiral molecule
Chemical formula C6H6Cl6
Canonical SMILES C1(C(C(C(C(C1Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) JLYXXMFPNIAWKQ-GNIYUCBRSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C6H6Cl6/c7-1-2(8)4(10)6(12)5(11)3(1)9/h1-6H/t1-,2-,3-,4+,5+,6+
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Insecticide, Acaricide, Veterinary substance
Substance group Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity 995 g/Kg
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Acts as stimulant to the nervous system with contact and stomach action. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist.
CAS RN 58-89-9
EC number 210-168-9 / 200-401-2
CIPAC number 488
US EPA chemical code 009001
PubChem CID 727
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 290.82
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name 1α,2α,3β,4α,5α,6β-hexachlorocyclohexane
CAS name (1α,2α,3β,4α,5α,6β)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
Other status information Chemical subject to PIC regulations; POP - Stockholm Convention; LRTAP Annex I; PAN Highly Hazardous Chemical; OSPAR pfap; Severe Marine Pollutant; Rotterdam Convention (Class II)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards UK Environment Agency non-statutory standard for the protection of shellfish for human consumption in saltwater: 100 mg/L
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 2A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Anthonomus grandis
Atta sexdens
Ceratitis capitata
Culex pipiens pipiens
Delia platura
Plusia gamma
many others
Physical state Colourless crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • ICI Plant Protection
  • Rhone-Poulenc
  • Boehringer
  • Merck
Example products using this active
  • Grammexane
  • Inexit
  • Exagama
  • Gallogama
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Available in a broad range of formulations including suspension concentrates, emulsifiable concentrates, granules, flowable concentrates and pellets.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for lindane

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 8.52 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 435000 B4 - Acetone -
289000 B4 - Benzene -
357000 B4 - Ethyl acetate -
29000 A5 - Methanol -
Melting point (oC) 112.9 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) 323.4 R4 -
Degradation point (oC) 200 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 3.16 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.50 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.88 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 4.4 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.483 X 10-06 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 3.95 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.29 X 10+00 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 No absorption above 290nm in neutral medium A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 72.1 A5 -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 980 A5 Very persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 980 A5 Very persistent
DT50 (field) 148 A5 Persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) 523 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier Field studies DT90 range 42-390 days, DT90 range 75-971 days; Other sources: DT50 400 days (DW4)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 2.6 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.1-3.5 days,4 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=4
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 10.9 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.0-80.0 days, 8 field crops, various matrices, n=10
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 28 K3 Slow
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 732 A5 - @ 25degC Very persistent
Note DT50 752 days @ pH 5, 182 days @ pH 9 all at 25DegC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 394 A5 Stable
Water phase only DT50 (days) 21 A5 Slow

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - A5 Slightly mobile
Koc 1270
Notes and range EU dossier Koc range 871-1671 mL/g
Freundlich Kf 15.9 R4 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 477
1/n 0.957
Notes and range Literature data: Kf range 1.4-48.4 mL/g, Kfoc range 46.2-866.2 mL/g, 1/n range 0.85-1.02, Soils=6
pH sensitivity None

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene
Note: Highly toxic, highly persistent
- Soil - -
alpha-HCH
Note: Will bioaccumulate
- Soil - -
DDE
(Ref: HSDB 1625)
Note: Toxic, persistent
- Soil - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for lindane

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 1300 A5 (Other literature values log BCF range 1.6-3.1 (R3)) Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 163 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 0.3 B5 Rat High
(ppm diet) 4 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 122 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 695 mg kg feed-1 A5 Anas platyrhynchos -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.0029 B5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 2.9 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 1.6 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 54.0 A5 Daphnia magna Low
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.0063 F4 Americamysis bahia High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.04 F4 Chironomus riparius High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.027 F4 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 2.5 F4 Scenedesmus abundans Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 1.9 Q2 Unknown species Low
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 0.23 A5 High
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 0.011 A5 High
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 68 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect Harmless AA2 Chrysoperla carnea -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5 -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for lindane

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 163 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) 900 L3 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 1.56 L3 Rat, 4 hr -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.003 A5 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.009 A4 Dog, 90 day, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List I; List II - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational PPE and PPC should be worn
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards UK Environment Agency non-statutory drinking water quality: 0.002 mg/L
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.002 mg/L
EU Drinking Water standards: A1 waters: 0.001 mg/L, A2 waters 0.0025 mg/L, A3 waters: 0.005 mg/L
UK EA QS database, 2018 -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Highly toxic
May cause dermatitis
May cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, seizures, muscle tremors and hyperreflexia
USEPA - some evidence to suggest possible human carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Reduction of oestrous cycles

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive
CLP classification 2013 Health: H301, H312, H332, H362, H373
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Reproduction risk category 3: R64
T - Toxic: R25
Xn - Harmful: R20/21, R48/22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S1/2, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) II - Warning - Moderately toxic
UN Number 2761
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for lindane

Language Name
English lindane
French Gamma-HCH
German gamma-HCH
Danish lindan
Italian lindano
Spanish lindano
Greek -
Slovenian lindan
Polish gamma-HCH
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch lindaan

Record last updated: Wednesday 31 October 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk