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GET ADDITIONAL DATA HERE!

imazalil (Ref: R 023979)
** enilconazole ** chloramizol ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home
Further data may be found in the VSDB

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for imazalil

Description: A fungicide used to control a wide range of fungi including Tilletia and Helminthosporium spp. on fruit, vegetables and ornamentals

Example pests controlled: Powdery Mildew; Blackspot; Storage rots; Leaf stripe

Example applications: Fruit including citrus, apples, pears bananas; Cucumbers; Roses; Barley; Wheat

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1977

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Netherlands/Belgium
Date inclusion expires 31/12/2021
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism A chiral molecule
Chemical formula C14H14Cl2N2O
Canonical SMILES C=CCOC(CN1C=CN=C1)C2=C(C=C(C=C2)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) PZBPKYOVPCNPJY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C14H14Cl2N2O/c1-2-7-19-14(9-18-6-5-17-10-18)12-4-3-11(15)8-13(12)16/h2-6,8,10,14H,1,7,9H2
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide, Veterinary substance
Substance group Imidazole
Minimum active substance purity 950 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic with curative and protective properties. Disrupts membrane function.
CAS RN 35554-44-0
EC number 252-615-0
CIPAC number 335
US EPA chemical code 111901
PubChem CID 37175
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 297.18
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name (RS)-1-(β-allyloxy-2,4-dichlorophenylethyl)imidazole
CAS name 1-(2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl)-1H-imidazole
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) 3
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Yellow-brown oily solid
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Certis
  • Gustafson
  • Makhteshim-Agan
Example products using this active
  • Gustafson Flo-Pro
  • Fungazil 100 SL
  • Monceren IM
  • Fungaflor 100EC
  • Ravine Plus
  • Magnate 100SL
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Supplied in a variety of formulations for use as a foliar spray or seed treatment.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for imazalil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 184 A5 Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 500000 A5 - Methanol -
500000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
19000 A5 - n-Hexane -
500000 L3 - Toluene -
Melting point (oC) 51.5 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A4 -
Degradation point (oC) 260 A4 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 3.63 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P 2.56 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.35 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 6.49 A5 -
Note: Weak base
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.158 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 0.000108 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.61 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.19 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 At pH4: 265nm = 236, 272nm = 311, 280nm = 255; [At pH7: 265nm = 246, 272nm = 325, 280nm = 268. [At pH9: 265nm = 246, 272nm = 329, 280nm = 273 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 46.6 A5 at 20oC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 76.3 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 76.3 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (field) 6.4 A4 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 1311 A5 -
DT90 (field) 61 A4 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier lab studies DT50 range 43.9-128 days, DT90 range 202-4366 days; field studies DT50 range 5.7-7.1 days, DT90 range 54-68 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 55.2 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 6.8-81.8 days, 3 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=3
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 6.1 A5 Moderately fast
Note Data for continuous irradiation
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Relatively stable A5 -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 117 A5 Slow
Water phase only DT50 (days) 7.8 A4 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 126.9 A5 Non-mobile
Kfoc 4753
1/n 0.87
Notes and range EU dossier kf range 38.2-195.3 mL/g, Kfoc range 2080-8150 mL/g, 1/n range 0.719-0.987, Soils=12
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)2-imidazol-1-ylethanol (Ref: R014821) Soil   0.096   Minor fraction, Relevant
methyl isothiocyanate (Ref: SN-32866) Soil   0.096   Minor fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
- - - - -
unknown
(Ref: FK284)
- Animal - -
unknown
(Ref: FK772)
- Animal - -
methyl 2-(aminosulfonyl)benzoate
(Ref: IN-D5803)
Note: Minor fraction, Relevant
- - - -
[3-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazole-1-yl)ethoxyl]-1,2-propanediol]
(Ref: R042243)
- Animal - -
unknown
(Ref: R043449)
- Animal (Bovine tissue & milk) - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for imazalil

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 56.3 A5 Low potential
CT50 (days) 35.2 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 227 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 2.5 L1 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 510 A5 Coturnix japonica Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5620 mg kg feed-1 A5 Coturnix japonica -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 1.48 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.043 F3 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 28 day LOEC Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 3.5 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.181 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) 165.4 A4 Chironomus riparius Low
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.87 A5 Raphidocelis subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 39 A5 Moderate
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 35.1 A5 Moderate
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 541 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 0 Mortality
14 days of exposition
A5 Coccinella septempunctata
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 0 Mortality
Concentration: 300 g active/l water, 7 day
A5 Encarsia formosa
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 1 mg kg-1 soil
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for imazalil

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 227 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 1.84 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints Intraperitoneal LD50 = 155 mg kg-1 V3 Rat -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.025 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.05 A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.05 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 7-46 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public No unacceptable risk to bystanders identified
Consumers may be exposed via ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs
Occupational No unacceptable risk for operators or other workers identified
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues Possible liver and kidney toxicant
USEPA - probable human carcinogen

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H318, H332
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R20/22m, R41
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S26, S39, S60, S61
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) II - Warning - Moderately toxic
UN Number 2588 for active, products usually 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for imazalil

Language Name
English imazalil
French imazalil
German Imazalil
Danish imazalil
Italian imazalil
Spanish imizalil
Greek -
Slovenian imazalil
Polish imazalil
Swedish imazalil
Hungarian imazalil
Dutch imazalil

Record last updated: Thursday 23 August 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk