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pendimethalin (Ref: AC 92553)
** pendimethaline ** penoxalin ** phenoxalin ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for pendimethalin

Description: A herbicide used to control most annual grasses and common weeds in cereals, fruit and vegetables

Example pests controlled: Annual grasses including Barnyardgrass, goosegrass, crab grass, signal grass and common buffalo grass; Annual broad-leaved weeds including pigweed, goosefoot and purslane

Example applications: Wheat & other small grain cereals; Corn; Soybeans; Maize; Fruit; Vegetables including beans & peas, carrots; Turf & lawns; Potatoes; Vineyards; Peanuts

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1974, first reported

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Netherlands/Spain
Date inclusion expires 31/08/2024
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) Yes - two 'Persistent-Bioaccumulative-Toxic' criteria
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C13H19N3O4
Canonical SMILES CCC(CC)NC1=C(C=C(C(=C1[N+](=O)[O-])C)C)[N+](=O)[O-]
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) CHIFOSRWCNZCFN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C13H19N3O4/c1-5-10(6-2)14-12-11(15(17)18)7-8(3)9(4)13(12)16(19)20/h7,10,14H,5-6H2,1-4H3
Structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide
Substance group Dinitroaniline
Minimum active substance purity 900 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - 1.2-dichloroethane <= 1 g/kg; Nitroso-pendimethaline < 0.045 g/kg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Selective, absorbed by roots and leaves. Inhibition of mitosis and cell division. Microtubule assembly inhibition.
CAS RN 40487-42-1
EC number 254-938-2
CIPAC number 357
US EPA chemical code 108501
PubChem CID 38479
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 281.31
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name N-(1-ethylpropyl)-2,6-dinitro-3,4-xylidine
CAS name N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards UK Environment Agency non-statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life in fresh surface water and salt water: 1.5 ug/L as annual average, 6 ug/L as max acceptable conc.
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) K1
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 3
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Alopecurus myosuroides
Physical state Orange yellow crystalline solid
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • AgriGuard
  • BASF
  • Greencrop
  • Headland
  • Standon
  • Makhteshim-Agan
Example products using this active
  • Blazer
  • Bunker
  • Claymore
  • PDM 330 EC
  • PicoMax
  • Picona
  • PicoPro, Stomp
  • PicoStomp
  • Pendimethalin 330 EC
  • Trump
UK LERAP status Buffer probably required in UK - see product label
Formulation and application details Often supplied as an emulsifiable or emulsion concentrate that is mixed with water and used as a spray.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for pendimethalin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.33 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 49000 A5 - n-Hexane -
800000 A5 - Xylene -
800000 A5 - Acetone -
66100 A5 - n-Octanol -
Melting point (oC) 56 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) 246 A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 246 A5 - Decomposition begins on boiling -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.51 X 1005 Calculated -
Log P 5.4 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.17 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 2.8 A5 -
Note: Strong acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 3.34 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.27 A5 - @ 25 degC Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index -0.32 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g-1 are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 238nm = 28775, 425nm = 5490 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 182.3 A5 Persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 182.3 A5 Persistent
DT50 (field) 100.6 A5 Persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 658.6 A5 -
DT90 (field) 423.2 A3 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier (2016) lab studies DT50 range 97-270 days, DT90 range 331.5-1002 days, Soils=5; Field studies DT50 range 39.8-187 days, Dt90 range 144-582 days, Soils=18
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 12.0 R3 -
Note Kentucky bluegrass thatch, n=1
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 8.0 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 5.4-16.0 days, 5 field crops, various matrices, n=7
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 21 A5 Slow
Note DT50 7 days in June, 94 days Dec. under environmentally relevant conditions. DT50 21 days for continuous irradiation.
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable pH 4 to pH 9
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 16 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 4 A2 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd 228 A5 Non-mobile
Koc 17491
Notes and range EU dossier (2016) Kd range 120-677 mL/g; Koc range 10241-36604 mL/g; Soils=9; Other sources Log Koc 4.13 @ 25 degC (R3)
Freundlich Kf 220.1 A5 Non-mobile
Kfoc 13792
1/n 0.954
Notes and range EU dossier (2016) Kf range 110.5-510.2 mL/g; Kfoc range 8942-27578 mL/g; 1/n range 0.919-0.980; Soils = 9
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
2-methyl-3,5-dinitro-4-(pentan-3ylamino)benzoic acid (Ref: M455H001) Soil   0.069   Minor fraction; Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
4,5-dimethyl-3-nitro-N-(pentan-3-yl)benzene1,2-diamine M455H033 Soil (anaerobic); Water 0.259 -
1-(1-ethylpropyl)-5,6-dimethyl-7-nitro-1H-benzimidazole M455H029 Water - -
7-amino-5-methyl-1-(pentan-3-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-6-carboxylic acid M455H017-1 Animal - -
7-amino-4-methyl-1-(pentan-3-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid M455H017-2 Animal - -
3-((3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrophenyl)amino)pentan-1-ol M455H019-1 Rat - -
3-((3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrophenyl)amino)pentan-2-ol M455H019-2 Rat - -
(2-methyl-3,5-dinitro-4-(pentan-3-ylamino)phenyl)methanol M455H025 Rat; Plant - -
3-hydroxy-6-methyl-2,4-dinitrobenzylhexopyranoside M455H030 Plant - -
4-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-2,6-dinitrophenolate - Animal - -
4-((1-hydroxypentan-3-yl)amino)-2-methyl-3,5-dintrobenzoic acid M455H047 Animal - -
4-((1-carboxybutan-2-yl)amino)-2-methyl-3,5-dintrobenzoic acid M455H050 Animal - -
2-methyl-3,50dinitro-4-(((2-(sulfooxy)pentan-3-yl)amino)benzoic acid M455H056 Animal - -
3-((4-hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-2,6-dinitrophenyl)amino)pentan-2-ol M455H066 Animal - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for pendimethalin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 5100 A5 Whole fish High potential
CT50 (days) 5.1 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 4665 A5 Mouse Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - A5 Rat -
(ppm diet) > 500 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 1421 A5 Anas platyrhynchos Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 4187 mg kg feed-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.196 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.006 A5 Pimephales promelas High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.147 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0145 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.082 A4 Chironomus riparius, 30 day Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.022 A5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants 543 A5 Ryegrass
Seedling emergence, ER50
as g/ha
-
402 A5 Tomato
Seedling emergence, ER50
as g/ha
-
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.004 A5 Selenastrum capricornutum High
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 0.003 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) 100 A5 Moderate
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 101.2 A5 Low
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 1000 A5 Eisenia foetida Low
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 33.45 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 1200 =
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect 100 Mortality
Dose: 3.2 kg ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi, adult
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 4000 >
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect 38 Mortality
Dose: 3.2 kg ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, protonymph
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 11.2 kg ha-1
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 0.0011 A5 Aquatic community -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for pendimethalin

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 4665 A5 Mouse Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 5000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 6.73 A5 Rat 4 hr (nose only, liquid aerosol) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.125 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.3 A5 Rabbit, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.17 A5 Rabbit, SF=175 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.4-33% A5 concentration & forumalation dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public No unacceptable risks to bystanders identified
Occupational PPE/PPC recommended
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.02 mg/L UK EA QS database, 2018 -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

General human health issues Harmful if swallowed
Thyroid & liver toxicant
Bioaccumulates
USEPA - possible human carcinogen

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is variable depending upon product, often either 3 or 9
CLP classification 2013 Health: H317
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S22, S29, S37, S60, S61
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Variable with product, usually 1993 or 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for pendimethalin

Language Name
English pendimethalin
French pendimethaline
German Pendimethalin
Danish pendimethalin
Italian pendimetalin
Spanish pendimetalina
Greek -
Slovenian pendimetalin
Polish pendimetalina
Swedish pendimetalin
Hungarian pendimetalin
Dutch pendimethalin

Record last updated: Wednesday 31 October 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk