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Phorate (Ref: ENT 24042)
Last updated: 26/02/2021
(Also known as: timet; AC 3911)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An insecticide used to control leaf miners, leaf beetles, whiteflies, certain nematodes and other pests
Example pests controlled
Leaf miners; Leaf beetles; Whiteflies; Nematodes; Mites; Rootworms
Example applications
Pine forests; Corn; Cotton; Some ornamentals; Vegetables including brassicas, beans, potatoes
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1954
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
UK
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₇H₁₇O₂PS₃
Canonical SMILES
CCOP(=S)(OCC)SCSCC
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
BULVZWIRKLYCBC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C7H17O2PS3/c1-4-8-10(11,9-5-2)13-7-12-6-3/h4-7H2,1-3H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide, Nematicide
Substance group
Organophosphate
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Systemic with contact and stomach action. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
CAS RN
298-02-2
EC number
206-052-2
CIPAC number
173
US EPA chemical code
057201
PubChem CID
4790
Molecular mass
260.4
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
O,O-diethyl S-ethylthiomethyl phosphorodithioate
CAS name
O,O-diethyl S-((ethylthio)methyl) phosphorodithioate
Other status information
Severe Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
1B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Myzus persicae, Psilia rosae, Tetranychus hydrangaea, Tetranychus urticae
Physical state
Clear pale yellow liquid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Thimet
  • Phorate
  • Rampart
  • Thimenox
Example products using this active
  • AgroCare
  • Amvac Chemical Group
  • King Tech Corp
  • Amercian Cyanamid
Formulation and application details
Usually suppled as an emulsifiable concentrate or granules
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
50
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Methanol
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
Melting point (°C)
-15
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Product
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
110
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
(closed cup)
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
7.24 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.86
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.17
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
112
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
5.90 X 10-01
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
63
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
40
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
63
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Lab studies DT₅₀ 2-9 weeks, field DT₅₀ 14-18 days USA; Other sources: 50-90 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
7.7
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 1.4-16.1 days, 5 field crops, various matrices, n=5
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
1.1
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately fast
Note
Degraded by UV light
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
3.2
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
Note
pH sensitive: Stable pH 5 to pH 6, DT₅₀ 3.9 days at pH 9
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Slightly mobile
Koc
1660
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
0.89 - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
1.40 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
3.52 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
phorate sulfoxide
Soil - -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
phorate sulfone - - - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
483
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
(Whole fish Other literature Log BCF range 0.5-1.1 (R3))
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2.0
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
(ppm diet)
6 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2.25
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Anas platyrhynchos
High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.013
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.0002
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.004
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.00033
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Americamysis bahia
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.081
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chironomus riparius 2 day EC₅₀
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
1.3
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Unknown species
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
0.32
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera 24hr
High
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 0.43
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Apis mellifera 24hr
High
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 1.0
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Bombus terrestris
Moderate
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
20.8
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2.0
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.06
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0007
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2004
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.003
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2004
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I; List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
May be absorbed through the skin
Highly toxic by skin contact
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Very toxic
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H312
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
T+ - Very toxic: R27/28
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S28, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification
Ia (Extremely hazardous)
UN Number
3018
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
phorate
French
phorate
German
Phorat
Danish
phorat
Italian
forate
Spanish
forato
Greek
phorate
Polish
forat
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
foraat

Record last updated: 26/02/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242