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Spiroxamine (Ref: KWG 4168)
Last updated: 12/01/2021
(Not known by any other names)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A systemic fungicide used to control common fungal diseaases on cereals and fruit
Example pests controlled
Powdery mildew; Leaf spots; Rusts
Example applications
Grapes; Cereals including wheat, triticale; barley, oats, rye
Efficacy & activity
Wheat/Mildew=Low; Wheat/Rust=Low; Barley/Rhynchosporium=Low; Barley/Mildew=Low; Barley/Rust=low; Barley/Net blotch=Low
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
-
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
31/12/2024
UK LERAP status
LERAP Category B (may vary with mixtures)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 1107/2009 status
Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Austria/Estonia
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
31/12/2021
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
No
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
     
Also used in
Also used in
Australia
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule. The technical material is an isomeric mixture of four biologically active isomers - two diastereomers, four enantiomers.
Chemical formula
C₁₈H₃₅NO₂
Canonical SMILES
CCCN(CC)CC1COC2(O1)CCC(CC2)C(C)(C)C
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
PUYXTUJWRLOUCW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C18H35NO2/c1-6-12-19(7-2)13-16-14-20-18(21-16)10-8-15(9-11-18)17(3,4)5/h15-16H,6-14H2,1-5H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Fungicide
Substance group
Morpholine
Minimum active substance purity
950 g kg⁻¹
Known relevant impurities
EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Systemic with protective, curative and eradicative action. Disrupts membrane function. Inhibits sterol biosynthesis in membranes.
CAS RN
118134-30-8
EC number
-
CIPAC number
572
US EPA chemical code
120759
PubChem CID
86160
Molecular mass
297.5
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
rac-N-{[(2R)-8-tert-butyl-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-2-yl]methyl}-N-ethylpropan-1-amine
IUPAC name
8-tert-butyl-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-2-ylmethyl(ethyl)(propyl)amine
CAS name
8-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-N-ethyl-N-propyl-1,4-dioxaspiro(4.5)decane-2-methanamine
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
5
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Pale yellow liquid
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Cello
  • Helix
  • Sage
  • Torch Extra
  • Prosper 500 EC
Example products using this active
  • Bayer CropScience
Formulation and application details
Often supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate that is mixed with water and used as a spray
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
405
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
200000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
n-Hexane
-
200000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Acetone
-
200000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Methanol
-
200000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Toluene
-
Melting point (°C)
-170
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Degradation point (°C)
120
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Flashpoint (°C)
147
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
7.76 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.89
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
0.93
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
6.9
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Base
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
3.5
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
3.80 X 10-03
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
No maximum of absorbance between 200nm - 400nm
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
25
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
22.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
52.4
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
73
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₉₀ (field)
175.4
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Field studies DT₅₀ range 19.8-145.3 days (normalised), DT₉₀ range 42.9-466.2 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
14.1
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Grape berries, n=1
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
50.5
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Stable
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Stable
Note
Stable pH 5 to pH 7, slow hydrolysis at pH 9
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
66.2
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
0.8
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Fast
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
142.3
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-mobile
Kfoc
14567
1/n
0.821
Notes and range
EU dossier kf range 4.61-892.6mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 658.8-85008 mL g⁻¹, 1/n range 0.768-1.063, Soils=10
pH sensitivity
No
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-0.28 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
N-((8-tert-butyl-1,4-dioxaspiro(4.5)dec-2-yl)methyl)propan-1-amine
Soil 0.088 Minor fraction, Not relevant
N-((8-tert-butyl-1,4-dioxaspiro(4.5)dec-2-yl)methyl)methyl]ethanamine
Soil 0.092 Minor fraction, Not relevant
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
-
Note: C18H35NO4
hydroxy-N-oxide spiroxamine; Metabolite M10 Plant - -
-
Note: C16H29NO4
desethyl KWG4168; Metabolite M11 Rat; Animal; Plant; Soil - -
-
Note: C15H27NO4
despropyl acid spiroxamine; Metabolite M12 Rat; Plant; Soil - -
-
Note: C10H20O
cyclohexanol spiroxamine; Metabolite M13 Rat; Animal; Plant - -
-
Note: C10H20O2
spiroxamine diol; Metabolite M14 Plant - -
-
Note: C10H18O
spiroxamine ketone; Metabolite M15 Rat; Plant; Soil - -
-
Note: C10H18O2
spiroxamine hydroxy ketone; Metabolite M16 Plant - -
-
Note: C24H41NO10
spiroxamine acid glucuronide; Metabolite M19 Rat; Animal - -
2-(2-{[ethyl(propyl)amino]methyl}-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
Note: C18H33NO4
spiroxamine acid; Metabolite M06 Rat; Animal (Tissue, Milk, Eggs); Plant; Soil - -
-
Note: C18H35NO3
hydroxy spiroxamine; Metabolite M05 Rat; Animal; Plant; Soil - -
-
Note: C18H33NO5
8-hydroxy acid spiroxamine; Metabolite M08 Rat; Animal - -
-
Note: C10H17O2R
spiroxamine hydroxy ketone conjugate; Metabolite M23 Plant - -
-
Note: C10H18O2R
spiroxamine diol diglycoside; Metabolite M24 Plant - -
-
Note: C24H45NO9
spiroxamine hydroxy-N-oxide glucoside; Metabolite M20 Plant - -
-
Note: C27H47NO12
spiroxamine hydroxy-N-oxide malonyl glucoside; Metabolite M21 Plant - -
-
Note: C16H28O7
spiroxamine cyclohexanol glucuronide; Metabolite M22 Rat; Animal - -
-
Note: C32H62O2
spiroxamine docosanoic acid ester; Metabolite M35 Plant - -
-
Note: C10H29NO3
spiroxamine cyclohexenol; Metabolite M37 Plant - -
-
Note: C16H29NO3
spiroxamine N-formyl despropyl; Metabolite M38 Plant - -
2-(2-{[ethyl(propyl)amino]methyl}-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid
Note: C18H33NO5
spiroxamine hydroxy acid; Metabolite M07 Animal (Liver) - -
t-butylcyclohexanone
Note: Secondary product
- - - -
-
Note: C17H31NO3
N-formyl-desethyl spiroxamine; Metabolite M04 Plant - -
-
Note: C18H35NO3; LD50(oral, rat) = 707 mg/kg bw
N-oxide spiroxamine; Metabolite M03 Rat; Plant; Soil 0.110 -
-
Note: C18H35NO6S
spiroxamine sulfate; Metabolite M25 Rat; Animal - -
-
Note: C16H31NO6S
spiroxamine desethyl sulfate; Metabolite M26 Rat; Animal - -
-
Note: C15H29NO6S
spiroxamine despropyl sulfate; Metabolite M27 Rat; Animal - -
-
Note: C8H19NO2
spiroxamine aminodiol; Metabolite M28 Rat; Plant - -
-
Note: C8H19NO3
spiroxamine aminodiol-N-oxide; Metabolite M29 Plant - -
-
Note: C6H15NO2
spiroxamine desethyl aminodiol; Metabolite M30 Plant - -
-
Note: C5H13NO2
spiroxamine despropyl aminodiol; Metabolite M31 Plant - -
-
Note: C16H30O6
spiroxamine cychohexanol glucoside; Metabolite M32 Plant - -
2-(2-{[ethyl(propyl)nitroryl]methyl}-1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)-2-methylpropyl hexopyranoside
Note: C15H29NO3
hydroxy-despropyl spiroxamine; Metabolite M09 Plant - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
79
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
460
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Mouse
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
-
(ppm diet)
30 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
21
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat Reproductive NOAEL
Moderate
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
565
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
> 5000 mg kg feed⁻¹
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Anas platyrhynchos
-
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
5.4
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Colinus virginianus NOAEL
High
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
7.13
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.014
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
6.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
3.2
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Chironomus riparius
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
2.76
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Non-target plants
> 400
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Abutilon heophrasti Amanthus retroflexus
Seedling emergence, ER₅₀
as g ha⁻¹
-
> 1.25
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Soybean
Seedling emergence, ER₅₀
as g ha⁻¹
-
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.003
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Scenedemus subspicatus
High
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.0002
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Unknown species
High
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
4.2
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Apis mellifera
Low
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 500
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Eisenia foetida corr
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
5.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
32.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Folsomia candida
-
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
240
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect
77 Mortality [Dose: 0.75 kg ha⁻¹]
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Aphidius rhopalosiphi pupae
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
80.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect
99 Mortality [Dose: 0.74 kg ha⁻¹]
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Soil micro-organisms
Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes

Dose: 7.5 l formulation ha⁻¹
-
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
460
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Mouse
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
1068
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
2.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat 4 hr (nose only)
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.025
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Dog SF=100
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat SF=100
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.015
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat SF=167
-
Dermal penetration studies (%)
100
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
default
-
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
No unacceptable risks to bystanders identified
Occupational
No unacceptable risks to operators or other workers identified
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B3 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
C3 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
No further information available
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H312, H315, H317, H332, H373, H261d
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R20/21/22, R43
Xi - Irritant: R38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S36/37/39, S46, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
Usually 2902
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
spiroxamine
French
spiroxamine
German
Spiroxamine
Danish
spiroxamin
Italian
spiroxamina
Spanish
spiroxamina; espiroxamina
Greek
spiroxamine
Polish
spiroksamina
Swedish
-
Hungarian
spiroxamin
Dutch
spiroxamine

Record last updated: 12/01/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242