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Amoxicillin
Last updated: 08/12/2022
(Also known as: amoxycillin; amopen; amoxycillin trihydrate; p-hydroxyampicillin; AMC)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Slightly mobile
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
Low alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Low; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Low
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
High alert:
Reproduction/development effects
Warning:
Significant data are missing
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A broad spectrum semisynthetic a beta-lactam antibiotic / antimicrobial with applications in veterinary medicine
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Birds, Domestic fowl, Cats, Dogs, Pigs
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric
Chemical formula
C₁₆H₁₉N₃O₅S
Canonical SMILES
CC1(C(N2C(S1)C(C2=O)NC(=O)C(C3=CC=C(C=C3)O)N)C(=O)O)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC1([C@@H](N2[C@H](S1)[C@@H](C2=O)NC(=O)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(C=C3)O)N)C(=O)O)C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
LSQZJLSUYDQPKJ-NJBDSQKTSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C16H19N3O5S/c1-16(2)11(15(23)24)19-13(22)10(14(19)25-16)18-12(21)9(17)7-3-5-8(20)6-4-7/h3-6,9-11,14,20H,17H2,1-2H3,(H,18,21)(H,23,24)/t9-,10-,11+,14-/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
Sodium salt Variant
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antibacterial, Antibiotic, Medicinal drug
Substance groups
Penicillin related
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Semi-synthetic
Mode of action
Inhibits the synthesis of bacterial cell walls
Molecular targets
[Penicillin-binding proteins 1A/1B, antagonist]
CAS RN
26787-78-0
EC number
248-003-8
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QJ01CR02; QG51AX01
Therapeutic Class
Antiinfectants for systemic use: Antibacterials for systemic use; Genito urinary system & sex hormones: Antiinfectants & antiseptics for intrautarine use
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: All food producing species)
Molecular mass
365.40
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
(2S,5R,6R)- 6-([(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-acetyl]amino)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
CAS name
D-(-)-6-(2-amino-2-phenylacetamido)-3,3-dimethyl-7 -oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo [3.2.0] heptane-2-carboxylic acid
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White crystalline solid
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Amoxicure 30% powder for oral solution Oropharma N.V. UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Amoxival Vet Tablets Sogeval S.A. EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Synulox Palatable Tablets 50mg Pfizer ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Betamox 200mg Palatable Tablets Norbook Labs UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Ingested, available as capsules, tablets, chewable tablets and powders/tablets for aqueous suspension
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
3430
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
7500
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Methanol
-
3400
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
Melting point (°C)
194
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
7.41 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P
0.87
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
6.24 X 10-12
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
In ethanol: 230nm = 10850, 274nm = 1400
In acid: 229nm = 9500, 272nm = 1080
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
0.23
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
General literature gives DT₅₀ 0.16-0.29 days, very rapid
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
4
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Manure
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Slightly mobile
Koc
866
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-0.68 Calculated Low leachability
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 15000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 300
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
101.6
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
> 1000
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna gibba LOEC
Low
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.037
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Microcystis aeruginosa
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
250
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Selenastrum capricornutum
Low
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 15000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 2870 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
rat
-
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ > 8000 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Rapidly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration, whilst some is metabolised, it is rapidly mostly unchanged in the urine
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause vomiting, rashes and antibiotic-associated colitis
May cause allergic or asthmatic symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Not regulated under IMDG
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
amoxicillin
French
amoxicilline
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
amoxicilina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 08/12/2022
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242