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Moxidectin (Ref: CL 301423)
Last updated: 28/06/2022
(Also known as: milbemycin B)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
Potential for particle bound transport: High
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: High; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: High; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: High
Human health
Moderate alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: Moderate
Warning:
Significant data are missing
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A semi-synthetic, broad spectrum veterinary antiparasitic treatment used for the prevention and control of heartworm and intestinal worms in treatments animals such as dogs, cats, horses, cattle and sheep.
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
1990, synthesised
Examples of species treated
Domestic pets, Horses, Cattle, Sheep
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Moxidectin is the 23-E isomer of the 23-methoxime derivative of nemadectin
Chemical formula
C₃₇H₅₃NO₈
Canonical SMILES
CC1CC(=CCC2CC(CC3(O2)CC(=NOC)C(C(O3)C(=CC(C)C)C)C)OC(=O)C4C=C(C(C5C4(C(=CC=C1)CO5)O)O)C)C
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@H]\1C/C(=C/C[C@@H]2C[C@@H](C[C@@]3(O2)C/C(=N\OC)/[C@@H](C(O3)/C(=C/C(C)C)/C)C)OC(=O)[C@@H]4C=C([C@H]([C@@H]5[C@]4(/C(=C/C=C1)/CO5)O)O)C)/C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
YZBLFMPOMVTDJY-BFPKLJSTSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C37H53NO8/c1-21(2)14-25(6)33-26(7)31(38-42-8)19-36(46-33)18-29-17-28(45-36)13-12-23(4)15-22(3)10-9-11-27-20-43-34-32(39)24(5)16-30(35(40)44-29)37(27,34)41/h9-12,14,16,21-22,26,28-30,32-34,39,41H,13,15,17-20H2,1-8H3/b10-9+,23-12+,25-14+,27-11+,38-31+/t22-,26-,28+,29-,30-,32+,33?,34+,36-,37+/m0/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
moxidectin -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Insecticide, Acaricide, Antiparasitic, Ectoparasiticide
Substance groups
A milbemycin
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Semi-synthetic
Mode of action
Selectively binds to the parasites glutamate-gated chloride ion channels
Molecular targets
[Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3, agonist], [Gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) receptor subunit beta-3, agonist]
CAS RN
113507-06-5
EC number
-
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QP54AB02
Therapeutic Class
Antiparasitic products, insecticides & repellents: Endectocides
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: Bovine, Ovine)
Molecular mass
639.82
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
(10E,14E,16E)-(1R,4S,5'S,6R,6'S,8R,13R,20R,21R,24S)-6'-[(1E)-1,3-dimethylbut-1-enyl]-21,24-dihydroxy-5',11,13,22-tetramethyl-(3,7,19-trioxatetracyclo[15.6.1.14,8.020,24]pentacosa-10,14,16,22-tetraene)-6-spiro-2'-(tetrahydropyran)-2,4'-dione 4'-(E)-(O-methyloxime)
CAS name
(6R,23E,25S)-5-O-demethyl-28-deoxy-25-[(1E)-1,3-dimethyl-1-butenyl]-6,28-epoxy-23-(methoxyimino)milbemycin B
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White to pale yellow powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Cydectin Oral Drench for Sheep Pfizer Ltd EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by suitably qualified person (POM-VPS)
Equest Oral Gel for Horses & Ponies Pfizer Ltd EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by suitably qualified person (POM-VPS)
Advocat Spot-on Solution Bayer Agriculture EU Centralised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Zermex 10% LA for Cattle Pfizer Ltd EU Mutually recognised procedure (IC) Prescription only medicine to be authorised by suitably qualified person (POM-VPS)
Formulation and application details
Formulations include oral, topical, and injectable solutions
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
150
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
- - -
Log P
- - -
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
62
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Non-mobile
Koc
29500
Notes and range
General literature Koc range 18000-41000 mL g⁻¹
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-0.84 Calculated Low leachability
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 106
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
278
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
37.2
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.00016
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
< 0.00015
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss 96 hour
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.00003
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.087
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Green algae
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 106
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Majority of dose is excreted in faeces. Also identified in milk. The depletion half-lives in fat, muscle and kidney/liver were 11.5, 3.9 and 2.4 days, respectively.
V4 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
4 = Verified data
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found No data found No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
No further information available
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
moxidectin
French
moxidectine
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
moxidectina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 28/06/2022
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242