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Cyanocobalamin
Last updated: 02/03/2022
(Also known as: vitamin B12; anacobin)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
   
Human health
High alert:
Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Substance used to treat cobalt deficiencies in livestock principally sheep
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
1955
Examples of species treated
Sheep, Cattle, Horses, Pigs
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric
Chemical formula
C₆₃H₈₈CoN₁₄O₁₄P
Canonical SMILES
CC1=CC2=C(C=C1C)N(C=N2)C3C(C(C(O3)CO)OP(=O)([O-])OC(C)CNC(=O)CCC4(C(C5C6(C(C(C(=C(C7=NC(=CC8=NC(=C(C4=N5)C)C(C8(C)C)CCC(=O)N)C(C7(C)CC(=O)N)CCC(=O)N)C)[N-]6)CCC(=O)N)(C)CC(=O)N)C)CC(=O)N)C)O.[C-]#N.[Co+3]
Isomeric SMILES
CC1=CC2=C(C=C1C)N(C=N2)[C@@H]3[C@@H]([C@@H]([C@H](O3)CO)OP(=O)([O-])O[C@H](C)CNC(=O)CC[C@@]4([C@H]([C@@H]5[C@]6([C@@]([C@@H](/C(=C(/C7=N/C(=C\C8=N/C(=C(\C4=N5)/C)/[C@H](C8(C)C)CCC(=O)N)/[C@H]([C@]7(C)CC(=O)N)CCC(=O)N)\C)/[N-]6)CCC(=O)N)(C)CC(=O)N)C)CC(=O)N)C)O.[C-]#N.[Co+3]
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
FDJOLVPMNUYSCM-WZHZPDAFSA-L
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C62H88N13O14P.CN.Co/c1-29-20-39-40(21-30(29)2)75(28-70-39)57-52(84)53(41(27-76)87-57)89-90(85,86)88-31(3)26-69-49(83)18-19-59(8)37(22-46(66)80)56-62(11)61(10,25-48(68)82)36(14-17-45(65)79)51(74-62)33(5)55-60(9,24-47(67)81)34(12-15-43(63)77)38(71-55)23-42-58(6,7)35(13-16-44(64)78)50(72-42)32(4)54(59)73-56;1-2;/h20-21,23,28,31,34-37,41,52-53,57,76,84H,12-19,22,24-27H2,1-11H3,(H2,63,77)(H2,64,78)(H2,65,79)(H2,66,80)(H2,67,81)(H2,68,82)(H,69,83)(H,85,86);;/q;;+1/p-1/b42-23-,54-32-,55-33-;;
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
cyanocobalamin hydrate -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Medicinal drug
Substance groups
Unclassifed
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
Converted to coenzyme B12 that is vital for a number of body processes including growth, hematopoiesis and nucleoprotein and myelin synthesis.
Molecular targets
[Methionine synthase], [Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, mitochondrial], [Methionine synthase reductase, mitochondrial], [Methylmalonic aciduria type A protein, mitochondrial], [Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C protein], [Amnionless protein], [Transcobalamin-1], [Transcobalamin-2], [Cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase, mitochondrial], [Cubilin]
CAS RN
68-19-9
EC number
200-680-0
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QB03BA01
Therapeutic Class
Blood & blood forming organs: Antianemic preparations
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Not applicable - vitamin
Molecular mass
1355.38
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolylcobamide cyanide
CAS name
5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazolyl cyanocobamide
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Dark red to brown hygroscopic crystalline solid
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Duphalyte Solution for injection Pzifer Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by suitably qualified person (POM-VPS)
Multivitamin Injection Norbrook Labs UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by suitably qualified person (POM-VPS)
Vitbee 250 Solution for injection Dechra Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by suitably qualified person (POM-VPS)
Intravit 12 Solution for Injection Norbrook Labs UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by suitably qualified person (POM-VPS)
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as a solution for injection
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
12500
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
102.5
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
3.72 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.57
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
In water max at: 278nm, 361nm & 55nm
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LDLo = 1.36 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
Intravenous LD₅₀ > 2000 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Rapidly excreted in the urine and faeces but also identified in human breast milk and bile
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
Generally considered to be non-toxic
May lead to allergic reactions
May cause breathing difficulties
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Use water spray, fog or foam to fight fires. Do not use water jet
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
cyanocobalamin
French
cyanocobalamine
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
cianocobalamina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 02/03/2022
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242