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Dexamethasone
Last updated: 03/03/2022
(Also known as: fluormethylprednisolone)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Moderately mobile
Warning:
Significant data are missing
 
Human health
High alert:
Reproduction/development effects; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Used as an anti-inflammatory drug in a variety of animals including, for example, the control of CNS inflammation in dogs and cats and for the treatment of primary bovine ketosis.
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Cattle, Horses, Lamas, Elephants, Pigs, Dogs, Cats
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric
Chemical formula
C₂₂H₂₉FO₅
Canonical SMILES
CC1CC2C3CCC4=CC(=O)C=CC4(C3(C(CC2(C1(C(=O)CO)O)C)O)F)C
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@H]1C[C@H]2[C@@H]3CCC4=CC(=O)C=C[C@@]4([C@]3([C@H](C[C@@]2([C@]1(C(=O)CO)O)C)O)F)C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
UREBDLICKHMUKA-CXSFZGCWSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C22H29FO5/c1-12-8-16-15-5-4-13-9-14(25)6-7-19(13,2)21(15,23)17(26)10-20(16,3)22(12,28)18(27)11-24/h6-7,9,12,15-17,24,26,28H,4-5,8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-,15+,16+,17+,19+,20+,21+,22+/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
dexamethasone -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Anti-inflammatory
Substance groups
Corticosteroid
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Unbound dexamethasone crosses cell membranes and binds to specific cytoplasmic receptors leading to a reduction in inflammation
Molecular targets
[Glucocorticoid receptor, agonist], [Nuclear receptor 0B1, stimulator], [Annexin A1, stimulator], [Nitric oxide synthase, inducible, negative modulator]
CAS RN
50-02-2
EC number
200-003-9
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QA01AC02; QC05AA09; QD07AB19; QH02AB02; QR01AD03; QS01BA01; QS02BA06; QS03BA01
Therapeutic Class
Alimentary tract & metabolism; Cardiovascular system; Dematologicals; Systemic hormone preparations excluding sex hormones & insulins; Respiratory system; Sensory organs
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1 Bovine, Caprine, Porcine, Equidae)
Molecular mass
392.46
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
8S,9R,10S,11S,13S,14S,16R,17R)-9- fluoro-11,17-dihydroxy-17-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-10,13,16- trimethyl-6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17- dodecahydro-3H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one
CAS name
1-dehydro-16α-methyl-9α-fluorohydrocortisone
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White crystalline powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Colvasone 0.2% w/v Solution for injection Norbrook Labs UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Dexafort suspension for injection Intervet Uk Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Rapidexon 2 mg/ml solution for injection Eurovet Animal Health B.V. EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Voren Suspension for Injection 1mg/ml Boehringer B.V. UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of formulations including injections, creams, sprays and aerosols
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
89
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
1000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
Melting point (°C)
262
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
568
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
279.5
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
6.76 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P
1.83
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.32
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.18 X 10-08
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
Contains chromophores that absorb at wavelengths >290nm
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
1.591
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately mobile
Koc
240
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known soil and groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
6-beta-hydroxydexamethasone - Human (Liver) - Cytochrome P450 3A4
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 3000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 3000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 54 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ = 14 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Metablised and around 30% excreted in the urine within 4 days. Also excreted in human breast milk.
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause hypertension
May cause retinal toxicity, glaucoma & subcapsular cataract
May cause delayed wound healing, atrophy & skin fragility
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Emits toxic fumes of hydrogen fluoride when heated to decomposition
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
dexamethasone
French
-
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
dexametasona
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 03/03/2022
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242