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Sulphadoxine
Last updated: 26/04/2021
(Also known as: sulfadoxine; sulphormethoxine; sulforthomidine)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
   
Human health
Low alert
Warning:
Significant data are missing
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Antibacterial drug to treat or prevent various infections in livestock
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Cattle, Horses, Pigs, Cats
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₁₂H₁₄N₄O₄S
Canonical SMILES
COC1=C(N=CN=C1OC)NS(=O)(=O)C2=CC=C(C=C2)N
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
PJSFRIWCGOHTNF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C12H14N4O4S/c1-19-10-11(14-7-15-12(10)20-2)16-21(17,18)9-5-3-8(13)4-6-9/h3-7H,13H2,1-2H3,(H,14,15,16)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
sulphadoxine -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Medicinal drug, Antibacterial, Antiparasitic
Substance groups
Sulfonamide
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Helps inhibit the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase which restricts folic acid production
Molecular targets
[Dihydropteroate synthetase], [Bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase, inhibitor]
CAS RN
2447-57-6
EC number
219-504-9
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QJ01EQ13
Therapeutic Class
Antiinfectants for systemic use: Antibacterials for systemic use
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
Allowed substance (Table 1: All food producing species)
Molecular mass
310.33
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
4-amino-N-(5,6-dimethoxy-4-pyrimidinyl)benzenesulfonamide
CAS name
4-sulfanilamido-5,6-dimethoxypyrimidine
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White or off-white crystalline powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Bimotrim Co Injection Solution for Injection Bimeda Chemicals Ltd UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Borgal 24% Solution for Injection Virbac S.A. No UK authorisation for use with animals - expired, Authorised for use in Ireland Not applicable
Primidoxine Solution for Injection Norbrook Laboratories Ltd No UK authorisation for use with animals, Authorised for use in Ireland Not applicable
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as solution for injection
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
2700
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
192
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
523
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.01 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P
0.7
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
6.16
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
2.11 X 10-04
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5200
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 5200
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ = 2900 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ = 2900 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Eliminated partly by metabolism and partly by excretion of the unchanged compounds in urine or faeces
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found No data found No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May contribute towards hepatitis &/or pneumonitis
Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, convulsions, excitation & anorexia
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
None - not a ppp
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
sulphadoxine
French
-
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
sulfadoxina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 26/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242