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Griseofulvin
Last updated: 23/01/2023
(Also known as: grisovin; delmofulvina; grisefuline; (+)-griseofulvin)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
 
Ecotoxicity
Low alert:
Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Low
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
High alert:
Carcinogen; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Natural substance to treat fungal infections of the skin, such as ringworm, and nails
Availability status
Considered obsolete but may be available in some countries
Introduction & key dates
1939, first reported
Examples of species treated
Horses
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Griseofulvin is a chiral molecule. Substance is racemic.
Chemical formula
C₁₇H₁₇ClO₆
Canonical SMILES
CC1CC(=O)C=C(C12C(=O)C3=C(O2)C(=C(C=C3OC)OC)Cl)OC
Isomeric SMILES
C[C@@H]1CC(=O)C=C([C@]12C(=O)C3=C(O2)C(=C(C=C3OC)OC)Cl)OC
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
DDUHZTYCFQRHIY-RBHXEPJQSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C17H17ClO6/c1-8-5-9(19)6-12(23-4)17(8)16(20)13-10(21-2)7-11(22-3)14(18)15(13)24-17/h6-8H,5H2,1-4H3/t8-,17+/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
griseofulvin Unstated isomer
General status
Veterinary substance type
Fungicide, Antifungal, Antibiotic
Substance groups
Benzofuran fungicide
Minimum active substance purity
97%
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
Acts by binding to keratin in keratin precursor cells making them resistant to fungal infections.
Molecular targets
[Tubulin beta chain, antagonist], [Tubulin alpha chain, antagonist], [Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 12]
CAS RN
126-07-8
EC number
204-767-4
CIPAC number
308
US EPA chemical code
471400
PubChem CID
441140
CLP index number
No data found
ATCvet Code
QD01BA01
Therapeutic Class
Dermatologicals: Antifungals for dermatological use
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
No data
Molecular mass
352.77
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
(2S,6'R)-7-chloro-2',4,6-trimethoxy-6'-methyl-3H,4'H-spiro [1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohex[2]ene]-3,4'-dione
CAS name
7-chloro-4,6-dimethoxycoumaran-3-one-2-spiro-1'-(2'-methoxy-6'-methylcyclohex-2'-en-4'-one)
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White to pale cream-coloured, odourless crystalline powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Grisol V Granules 7.5% Vetoquinol UK Limited UK National authorisation (IC) Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Grisol V Powder 7.5% w/w oral powder Vetoquinol UK Limited UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Norofulvin 33.3% w/w Equine Oral Paste Norbrook Labs UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Norofulvin 7.5% w/w Granules for Top Dressing Use Norbrook Labs UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Was available in a variety of formulations including oral powders, pastes and granules for top dressing use
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
8.64
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
218
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
570
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
210
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
sublimes
-
Flashpoint (°C)
228
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.29 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.36
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.43
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.28 X 10-03
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
Max 286nm and 325nm
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
1.5403
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
at 25°C
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known soil and groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
6-dimethylgriseofulvin - Mammals (Urine) - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 1000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intraperitoneal LD₅₀ > 5000 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ > 12000 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Excreted mainly in the urine and faeces. Deposited in varying concentrations in the keratin layer of the skin, hair, and nails
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E1 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
1 = Positive
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
 
General human health issues
IARC group 2B carcinogen
May cause nausea, diarrhoea, hives, hives and fatigue
Possible blood and liver toxicant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of halogen gases
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
O (Obsolete substance)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
griseofulvin
French
griseofulvine
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
griseofulvina
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 23/01/2023
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242