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Cyhalothrin (Ref: OMS 2011)
Last updated: 18/01/2023
(Also known as: PP 563; cyhalothrine)

SUMMARY
Cyhalothrin is a pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide. It has a low aqueous solubility and is not volatile. It may be environmentally persistent depending on local conditions. There is a low risk of cyhalothrin leaching to groundwater. It is highly toxic to fish and honeybees. Cyhalothrin has a moderate mammalian oral toxicity, an endocrine disrupter and an irritant.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
Potential for particle bound transport: High
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: High; Bees acute oral ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Endocrine distrupter
Warning:
Significant data are missing
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An insecticide and acaricide used to control crops pests and animal ectoparasites
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1982, Australia
Examples of species treated
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule that consists of a mixture of four stereoisomers.
Chemical formula
C₂₃H₁₉ClF₃NO₃
Canonical SMILES
CC1(C(C1C(=O)OC(C#N)C2=CC(=CC=C2)OC3=CC=CC=C3)C=C(C(F)(F)F)Cl)C
Isomeric SMILES
CC1(C(C1C(=O)OC(C#N)C2=CC(=CC=C2)OC3=CC=CC=C3)/C=C(/C(F)(F)F)\Cl)C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
ZXQYGBMAQZUVMI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C23H19ClF3NO3/c1-22(2)17(12-19(24)23(25,26)27)20(22)21(29)31-18(13-28)14-7-6-10-16(11-14)30-15-8-4-3-5-9-15/h3-12,17-18,20H,1-2H3/t17-,18?,20-/m1/s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
-
Substance groups
Pyrethroid insecticide; Pyrethroid acaricide; Pyrethroid ester insecticide; Pyrethroid ester acaricide
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic with contact and stomach action. Some repellant properties. Sodium channel modulator.
Molecular targets
-
CAS RN
68085-85-8
EC number
268-450-2
CIPAC number
405
US EPA chemical code
128867
PubChem CID
5281873
CLP index number
No data found
ATCvet Code
-
Therapeutic Class
-
Controlled Drug?
-
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
-
Molecular mass
449.85
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
rac-(E)-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl (1R,3R)-3-[(1Z)-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-en-1-yl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate
IUPAC name
(RS)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS,3RS)-3-[(Z)-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropenyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
CAS name
cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl (1R,3R)-rel-3-((1Z)-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
Other status information
PAN Listed as Highly Hazardous Chemical; OSPAR soc; Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Yellow-brown viscous oil
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
- - - -
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.004
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
500000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
500000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Methanol
-
500000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Toluene
-
500000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethyl acetate
-
Melting point (°C)
Not applicable
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
275
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
204
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
(closed cup)
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
6.31 X 1006 Calculated -
Log P
6.8
B2 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
Soluble
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Data type
Observed in metabolism and farm animal feeding studies
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.25
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
9
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Hydrolysis prevents accurate determination
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.00 X 10-09
B3 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.80 X 10-02
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
57
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
57
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
Lab studies DT₅₀ range 32-82 days
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
Stable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Hydrolysed slowly pH 7 to pH 9, faster at pH 9
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
180000
Notes and range
Best available data
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-2.20 Calculated Low leachability
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
1950
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Whole fish
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Known soil metabolites
Metabolite
Major/Minor fraction
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Notes
(RS)-alpha-amido-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1-RS)-cis,trans-3-(ZE-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro prop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
- - -
(1RS)-Cis-3-(2-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-car boxylic acid
- - -
3-phenoxybenzoic acid (Ref: 692)
- - -
3-phenoxybenzaldehyde
- - -
Known groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
3-phenoxybenzaldehyde 3-PBAl Plants - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
140
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
2.4
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
High
(ppm diet)
20 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
5000
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Anas platyrhynchos
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1000
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
Eisenia foetida
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
0.027
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Apis mellifera
High
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.00046
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Lepomis macrochirus
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.38
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
140
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
200
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.086
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rar 4 hr
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.005
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.02
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2007
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0025
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
EU 2001
-
Dermal penetration studies (%)
0.3
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
EU 2001
-
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
No data found
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
Yes, known to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Moderately toxic
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Prevent generation of dust
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H312, H330
Environment: H400, H410
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
3352
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
cyhalothrin
French
cyhalothrine
German
Cyhalothrin
Danish
cyhalothrin
Italian
cialotrina
Spanish
cihalotrina
Greek
-
Polish
cyhalotryna
Swedish
-
Hungarian
cihalotrin
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 18/01/2023
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242