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Dichlorophen
Last updated: 15/01/2023
(Also known as: antiphen; anthifen)

SUMMARY
Dichlorophen is a fungicide, herbicide, bactericide and algicide. It has a low aqueous solubility and, based on its chemical properties, it is unlikely to leach to groundwater. It is not usually persistent in soils. Dichlorophen has a low mammalian toxicity but is moderately toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
Moderate alert:
Possible Carcinogen; Possible Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Used to control some tapeworms in domestic pets including Taenia spp and Dipylidium spp but not Echinococcus spp
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
First patented 1944 USA
Examples of species treated
Dogs, Cats
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₁₃H₁₀Cl₂O₂
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC(=C(C=C1Cl)CC2=C(C=CC(=C2)Cl)O)O
Isomeric SMILES
Clc1cc(c(O)cc1)Cc2cc(Cl)ccc2O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
MDNWOSOZYLHTCG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C13H10Cl2O2/c14-10-1-3-12(16)8(6-10)5-9-7-11(15)2-4-13(9)17/h1-4,6-7,16-17H,5H2
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
dichlorophen -
General status
Veterinary substance type
Antiparasitic, Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic
Substance groups
Bridged diphenyl fungicide; Phenolic compound
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Contact
Molecular targets
-
CAS RN
97-23-4
EC number
202-567-1
CIPAC number
325
US EPA chemical code
055001
PubChem CID
3037
CLP index number
604-019-00-0
ATCvet Code
QP52AG01
Therapeutic Class
Antiparasitic products, insecticides & repellents: Anthelmintics
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
No data
Molecular mass
269.1
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
2,2'-methylenebis(4-chlorophenol)
IUPAC name
4,4'-dichloro-2,2'-methylenediphenol
CAS name
2,2'-methylenebis[4-chlorophenol]
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
Colourless crystals
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Dichlorophen Tablets BP Battle Haywood & Bower Ltd UK National authorisation Authorised veterinary medicine for general sale (AVM - GSL)
Johnsons Easy Tapewormer for cats Johnsons Veterinary Products Ptd UK National authorisation Authorised veterinary medicine for general sale (AVM - GSL)
Johnsons twin wormer for cats Johnsons Veterinary Products Ptd UK National authorisation Authorised veterinary medicine for general sale (AVM - GSL)
Wilko Dual Action Worming Tablets For Cats Armitage Pet Products Ltd UK National authorisation (IC) Authorised veterinary medicine for general sale (AVM - GSL)
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate from crop protection purposes. As an animal insecticide formulations include cutaneous sprays, tablets for oral administration and shampoos
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
30
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
800000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Acetone
-
530000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Ethanol
-
540000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Isopropanol
-
Melting point (°C)
177.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.70 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.23
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.42
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
7.6
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
pKa(2) 11.6, Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.30 X 10-05
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.17 X 10-07
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
13
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
Best available data
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Non-mobile
Koc
4103
Notes and range
Estimated
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
0.43 Calculated Low leachability
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
45.4
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2690
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
(ppm diet)
2000 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.54
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Oncorhynchus mykiss 48 hour
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.154
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Pimephales promelas
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
6.2
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
10
F1 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
1 = Estimated data with little or no verification
Unknown species
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2690
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
1000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mouse
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Intravenous DT₅₀ = 17.0 mg kg⁻¹
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
Occupational
Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Well absorbed and metabolised by the liver, excreted mainly in the faeces
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
 
General human health issues
Moderately toxic
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H319
Environment: H400, H410
WHO Classification
III (Slightly hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
dichlorophen
French
dichlorophene
German
Dichlorophen
Danish
dichlorophen
Italian
diclorofene
Spanish
diclorofen
Greek
dichlorophen
Polish
dichlorofen
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
dichlorofeen

Record last updated: 15/01/2023
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242