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Enalapril maleate (Ref: MK 421)
Last updated: 14/04/2021
(Also known as: Renitek)

Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
 
Ecotoxicity
Low alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Low; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Low
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
High alert:
Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A veterinary prodrug used to treat hypertension, symptomatic heart failure, and asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
-
Examples of species treated
Cats; Dogs
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric
Chemical formula
C₂₄H₃₂N₂O₉
Canonical SMILES
CCOC(=O)C(CCC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(C)C(=O)N2CCCC2C(=O)O.C(=CC(=O)O)C(=O)O
Isomeric SMILES
CCOC(=O)[C@H](CCC1=CC=CC=C1)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N2CCC[C@H]2C(=O)O.C(=C\C(=O)O)\C(=O)O
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
OYFJQPXVCSSHAI-QFPUQLAESA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C20H28N2O5.C4H4O4/c1-3-27-20(26)16(12-11-15-8-5-4-6-9-15)21-14(2)18(23)22-13-7-10-17(22)19(24)25;5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h4-6,8-9,14,16-17,21H,3,7,10-13H2,1-2H3,(H,24,25);1-2H,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)/b;2-1-/t14-,16-,17-;/m0./s1
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Veterinary substance type
Medicinal drug: hypertension agent
Substance groups
Peptide
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Undergoes biotransformation to the active enalaprilat. An angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor; Blocks the angiotensin-converting enzyme.
Molecular targets
[Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Inhibitor]
CAS RN
76095-16-4
Alternative/old CAS RN
75847-73-3
EC number
278-375-7
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
-
ATCvet Code
QC09AA02
Therapeutic Class
Agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system: ACE inhibitors, plain; Antihypertensive drug
Controlled Drug?
No
Regulation 37/2010 MRL Classification
-
Molecular mass
492.52
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
(S)-1-(N-(1-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl)-L-alanyl)-L-proline
IUPAC name
(S)-1-((S)-2-(1-((S)-ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenyl-propylamino)-propionyl)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
CAS name
1-(N-((S)-1-Carboxy-3-phenylpropyl)-L-alanyl)-L-proline 1'-ethyl ester
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Physical state
White to off-white crystalline powder
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Authorisation Route
UK Legal Class
Example products using this active
Enacard Tablets for Dogs 1 mg Merial Animal Health UK National authorisation Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Prilenal 10 mg, Tablets Ceva Animal Health Ltd EU Mutually recognised procedure Prescription only medicine to be authorised by a veterinarian (POM-V)
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied in tablet form for oral administration
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
16400
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
at 25 °C
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
80.0
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
200
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Methanol
-
Melting point (°C)
143
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
165.3
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
416.7
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.17 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P
0.07
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
2.97
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
pKa(2)=5.35
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
- - -
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Refractive Index
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
Note
-
Manure DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
- - -
Koc
-
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
- - -
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Known soil and groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
enalapril - Animals inc. humans - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2973
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 1000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Pimephales promelas
Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
354
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2973
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
Subcutaneous LD₅₀ = 1418 mg kg⁻¹
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Intravenous LD₅₀ = 849 mg kg⁻¹
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Hepatic metabolism, renal excretion. Some evidence of some loss in maternal milk
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause dizziness, low blood pressure, synope and a dry cough
Possible kidney toxicant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Will produce toxic gases when heated to decomposition
Reactive with oxidising agents
CLP classification 2013
-
WHO Classification
NL (Not listed)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
enalapril maleate
French
-
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
-
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 14/04/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242