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Muscalure
Last updated: 10/05/2024
(Also known as: Z-9-tricosene; (Z)-9-tricosene; cis-tricos-9-ene; muscamone; house fly sex pheromone)

SUMMARY
Non-toxic to humans. Major environmental pathways include volatilisation and microbial degradation. Highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates but practically non-toxic to freshwater fish however minimal exposure would be expected. Not expected to be harmful to beneficial insects.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Moderately mobile
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
Low alert
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An insect sex pheromone of the housefly used to trap flies in agricultural and domestic situations
Example pests controlled
Flies
Example applications
Animal houses; Public and domestic buildings
Efficacy & activity
-
Appearance and life cycle
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1971, first isolated; 1975, introduced USA
Taxonomic classification
-
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Austria
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
No
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 by Mutual Recognition of Authorisation and/or national regulations in the following EEA countries
ISIceland
NONorway
                 
Additional information
Known to be used in the following countries
USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric
Chemical formula
C₂₃H₄₆
Canonical SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCC=CCCCCCCCC
Isomeric SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCC/C=C\CCCCCCCC
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
IGOWHGRNPLFNDJ-ZPHPHTNESA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C23H46/c1-3-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-19-21-23-22-20-18-16-14-12-10-8-6-4-2/h17,19H,3-16,18,20-23H2,1-2H3/b19-17-
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Biopesticide type
Insecticide, Attractant, Pheromone
Substance groups
Pheromone
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Natural
Mode of action
As male populations are reduced, breeding cycle is disrupted resulting in less egg production and lower populations
Substance source
Substance is secreted by female house flies (Musca domestica)
Substance production
Synthesised for commercial use by the Huang-Minlon reduction process preceeded by demethoxycarbonylation of oleyl chloride
Uses
Animal welfare; Public health
Target pests
Flies
Target host
Animal houses; Public and domestic buildings
Farming system suitability
-
CAS RN
27519-02-4
EC number
248-505-7
CIPAC number
None allocated
US EPA chemical code
103201
PubChem CID
-
Molecular mass
322.6
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
(Z)-tricos-9-ene
CAS name
(9Z)-9-tricosene
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Class (HRAC MoA class)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Class (WSSA MoA class)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Class (IRAC MoA class)
UNM
Fungicide Resistance Class (FRAC MOA class)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless to amber oil
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Product
Manufacturer
Example products
Maxforce Fly Spot bait Bayer Environmental Science
Bonanza Fly bait Control Solutions
Stimukil Fly Bait Troy Biosciences Inc, USA
Formulation and application details
Used in traps, sticky paper and dispensers, product may include rapid knockdown insecticide
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.000004
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
- - -
Boiling point (°C)
378
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
113
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
(closed cup)
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.23 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.09
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
- - -
Data type
- - -
Density (g ml⁻¹)
0.807
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.064
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
5.30 X 10-06
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
Volatilisation as max % of applied dose lost
From plant surface
- - -
From soil surface
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ (days) on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ (days) on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Air degradation
As this parameter is not normally measured directly, a surrogate measure is used: ‘Photochemical oxidative DT₅₀’. Where data is available, this can be found in the Fate Indices section below.
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately mobile
Koc
180
Notes and range
Best available data
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 4640
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1000
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Eisenia foetida
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 100
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Expert judgement
Low
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other bee species (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other bee species (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 1000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Low
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Tropical Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
1.08
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Tropical Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
Low (class I) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 10000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
5.71
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
No further information available
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H317
WHO Classification
Not listed (Not listed)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
Shelf-life, storage, stability and reactivity
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
muscalure
French
muscalure
German
Muscalur
Danish
muscalur
Italian
muscalure
Spanish
muscalure
Greek
-
Polish
muskalur
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-
Norwegian
-

Record last updated: 10/05/2024
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242