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abamectin (Ref: MK 936)
** avermectin ** abermectine ** L676 ** A121151 ** AVM ** C-076 ** MK-936 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home
Further data may be found in the VSDB

SUMMARY

Abamectin is a bacterium-derived pesticide that is approved for use in many countries. It has a low aqueous solubility and is not volatile. It does not tend to be persistent in the environment. It has a highly oral toxicity to mammals and there is some evidence that it may induce negative reproduction effects at high doses. It exhibits high or medium toxicity to most fauna and flora.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for abamectin

Description: Abamectin is a natural fermentation product of this bacterium and acts as a selective acaricide, nematicide and insecticide for use in a wide variety of crops

Example pests controlled: Phytophagous mites, Leafminers; Cockroaches; Ants including fire ants; Pear psylla; Nematodes including Meloidogyne spp.

Example applications: Ornamental plants; Fruit including citrus, pears, tomatoes, watermelon; Cotton, Vegetable crops including eggplant, curcubits, beans;

Efficacy & activity: Efficacy has been widely evaulated and proven to be excellent.

Appearance and life cycle: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1985

Taxonomic classification: -

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Austria/Malta
Date inclusion expires 30/04/2020
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Known to used in the following countries: USA, EU

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism A chiral molecule - abamectin is a mixture containing ~80% avermectin B1a and ~20% avermectin B1b.
Chemical formula C48H72O14 + C47H70O14
Canonical SMILES CCC(C)C1C(C=CC2(O1)CC3CC(O2)CC=C(C(C(C=CC=C4COC5C4(C(C=C(C5O)C)C(=O)O3)O)C)OC6CC(C(C(O6)C)OC7CC(C(C(O7)C)O)OC)OC)C)C
Isomeric SMILES CC[C@H](C)[C@@H]1[C@H](C=C[C@@]2(O1)C[C@@H]3C[C@H](O2)C/C=C(/[C@H]([C@H](/C=C/C=C/4\CO[C@H]5[C@@]4([C@@H](C=C([C@H]5O)C)C(=O)O3)O)C)O[C@H]6C[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H](O6)C)O[C@H]7C[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H](O7)C)O)OC)OC)\C)C
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) RRZXIRBKKLTSOM-XPNPUAGNSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C48H72O14.C47H70O14/c1-11-25(2)43-28(5)17-18-47(62-43)23-34-20-33(61-47)16-15-27(4)42(26(3)13-12-14-32-24-55-45-40(49)29(6)19-35(46(51)58-34)48(32,45)52)59-39-22-37(54-10)44(31(8)57-39)60-38-21-36(53-9)41(50)30(7)56-38;1-24(2)41-27(5)16-17-46(61-41)22-33-19-32(60-46)15-14-26(4)42(25(3)12-11-13-31-23-54-44-39(48)28(6)18-34(45(50)57-33)47(31,44)51)58-38-21-36(53-10)43(30(8)56-38)59-37-20-35(52-9)40(49)29(7)55-37/h12-15,17-19,25-26,28,30-31,33-45,49-50,52H,11,16,20-24H2,1-10H3;11-14,16-18,24-25,27,29-30,32-44,48-49,51H,15,19-23H2,1-10H3/b13-12+,27-15+,32-14+;12-11+,26-14+,31-13+/t25-,26+,28+,30+,31+,33-,34+,35+,36+,37+,38+,39+,40-,41+,42+,43-,44+,45-,47-,48-;25-,27-,29-,30-,32+,33-,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39+,40-,41+,42-,43-,44+,46+,47+/m10/s1
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Biopesticide type Insecticide, Acaricide, Nematicide, Metabolite, Veterinary substance
Substance group Micro-organism derived
Minimum active substance purity 850 abamectin; 800 B1a; 200 B1b as g/Kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - none declared
Substance origin Natural
Mode of action Contact and stomach action with limited systemic activity, blocks electrical activity in nerves and muscles of pest
Substance source Derived from the naturally occurring soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis
Substance production Abamectin is a natural fermentation product of the bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis.
Uses Crop protection
Target pests Wide range of insect pests including mites, miners and suckers
Target host Fruit, vegetables, ornamentals, cotton and others
Farming system suitability Suitable for use in organic farming and for IPM where approved for use in that country
CAS RN 71751-41-2
Alternative/old CAS RN 65195-55-3 B1a, 65195-56-4 B1b
EC number 265-610-3 / 265-611-9
CIPAC number 495
US EPA chemical code 122804
PubChem CID -
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 866.6
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name mixture of 80% (2aE,4E,8E)-(5'S,6S,6'R,7S,11R,13S,15S,17aR,20R,20aR,20bS)-6'-[(S)-sec-butyl]-5',6,6',7,10,11,14,15,17a,20,20a,20b-dodecahydro-20,20b-dihydroxy-5',6,8,19-tetramethyl-17-oxospiro[11,15-methano-2H,13H,17H-furo[4,3,2-pq][2,6]benzodioxacyclooctadecin-13,2'-[2H]pyran]-7-yl 2,6-dideoxy-4-O-(2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methyl-α-L-arabino-hexopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-α-L-arabino-hexopyranoside and 20% (2aE,4E,8E)-(5'S,6S,6'R,7S,11R,13S,15S,17aR,20R,20aR,20bS)-5',6,6',7,10,11,14,15,17a,20,20a,20b-dodecahydro-20,20b-dihydroxy-6'-isopropyl-5',6,8,19-tetramethyl-17-oxospiro[11,15-methano-2H,13H,17H-furo[4,3,2-pq][2,6]benzodioxacyclooctadecin-13,2'-[2H]pyran]-7-yl 2,6-dideoxy-4-O-(2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methyl-α-L-arabino-hexopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-α-L-arabino-hexopyranoside
CAS name avermectin B1
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards UK Environment Agency non-statutory guideline EQS: Freshwater annual average 0.01 ug/L, maximum acceptable conc 0.03 ug/L. Saltwater annual average 0.003 ug/L, maximum acceptable conc 0.01 ug/L
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 6
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Blattella germanica
Deraeocoris brevis
Panonychus ulmi
Tuta absoluta
Earias vittella
Liriomyza trifolii
several species of the Tetranychidae family
plus others
Physical state Fine white powder
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Product Manufacturer
Example products Vertimec Syngenta Global
Clinch Syngenta US
Agrimec Syngenta Global
Formulation and application details Available in a variety of formulations including sprays, pour-ons, dips for plant pest control and solutions for oral administration.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for abamectin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.020 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 23000 A5 - Toluene -
72000 A5 - Acetone -
160000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
83000 A5 - Octanol -
Melting point (oC) 161.8 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) Decomposes during melting A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.51 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P 4.4 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.18 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.0037 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 2.70 X 10-03 A5 Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 neutral soln: 245nm=32549, 255nm=18983
Acidic soln: 245nm=34515, 255nm=20977
Basic soln: 245nm=29551
A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 52.4 A5 at 20 degC, 96.7% -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 25.3 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 25.3 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 1.0 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 52.7 A5 -
DT90 (field) 1.0 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU 2019 dossier lab studies DT50 (normalised) range 15.9-57.6 days, DT90 (measured) range 52.7-191 days, Soils=11; field studies (2016) DT50 range 1-1.8 days; Other lab studies DT50 range 20-40 days for avermectin B1a
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 12.7 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.0-31.0 days, 7 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=9
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 4.1 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 0.2-9.3 days, 10 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=16
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 1.5 A5 Moderately fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable at pH 4 to pH 7
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 89 A5 Moderately fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 2.4 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 151 A5 Non-mobile
Kfoc 6631
1/n 0.971
Notes and range EU 2019 dossier Kf range 76.8-334 mL/g, Kfoc range 5701-7893 mL/g, 1/n range 0.950-1.013, Soils=5
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
8a-hydroxyavermectin B1a (Ref: NOA 448112) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.122   Major fraction, Relevant
8a-oxo-avermectine B1a (Ref: NOA 448111) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.117   Major fraction, Relevant
4,8a-dihydroxy-avermectin B1a (Ref: NOA 457464) Soil   0.099   Minor fraction, Relevant
8a-oxo-4-hydroxy-avermectin B1a (Ref: NOA 457465) Soil   0.099   Minor fraction, Relevant


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for abamectin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 69 A5 Whole fish Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 8.7 A5 Rat High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 4.5 P4 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 26 A5 Anas platyrhynchos High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 48.6 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A5 Anas platyrhynchos -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.0087 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.52 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.00056 A5 Daphnia pulex High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.00001 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.000081 A5 Chironomus riparius High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) 0.0033 A5 Chironomus riparius High
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 3.9 B5 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 1.59 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 21.3 Q3 Unknown species, EC50, 72 hour Low
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) 0.001 A5 Apis mellifera High
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 0.004 A5 Apis mellifera, 24hr High
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) 0.14 R4 Bombus terrestris, 72 hr High
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) 0.07 R4 Bombus terrestris, 72 hr High
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) 3.6 R4 Melipona quadrifasciata Moderate
Mode of exposure Contact
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) 0.015 R4 Melipona quadrifasciata High
Mode of exposure Oral
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 33 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 0.72 A5 Eisenia foetida, 10% OM Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 88.2 Survival
Dose: 1.17 g ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 93.3 Survival
Dose: 0.58 g ha-1
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 0.347 mg kg-1, 28 days
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 0.0018 A5 single application -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for abamectin

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 8.7 A5 Rat High
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 1914 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.021 A5 Rat, 4 hr (nose only) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.0012 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.005 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.0012 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 3-4 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Bystander risk acceptable for proposed uses Source EU dossier Unlikely via dermal contact
Source: US EPA
Occupational Possible dermal exposure and absorption
Source: US EPA

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A3; B0; C3; D0; E3

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues Evidence of teratogenicity
Potential reproduction effects at high doses
May cause tremors, ataxia and mydriasis, liver, absent or decreased pupil reflex
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes No information available
Tackle fires using dry chemicals, foam or carbon dioxide
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 Health: H300, H330, H361d, H372
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Reproduction risk category 3: R63
T+ - Very toxic: R26, R28
T - Toxic: R48/23/255
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S36, S37, S38, S45, S53, S60, S61
WHO Classification Ib - Highly hazardous
UN Number Usually 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)
Not explosive or oxidising


TRANSLATIONS

for abamectin

Language Name
English abamectin
French abamectine
German Abamectin
Danish abamectin
Italian abamectina
Spanish abamectina
Greek -
Slovenian abamektin
Polish abamektyna
Swedish abamectin
Hungarian abamectin
Dutch abamectin

Record last updated: Tuesday 25 June 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk