IUPAC HOME AERU HOME PPDB HOME BPDB HOME VSDB HOME
Top Environmental Fate Ecotoxicology Human Health Translations
Home
A to Z
Search
Support information
Edit history
Purchasing and licensing
NEW
Industry collaboration
Chlorobenzilate (Ref: ENT 18596)
Last updated: 23/02/2024
(Also known as: chlorbenzylate; chlorobenzylate; G 23992)

SUMMARY
Chlorobenzilate is an insecticide with a narrow range of uses. It has a low aqueous solubility but miscible with many organic solvents. It is volatile and has a low potential for leaching to groundwater. It is not expected to persist in soil systems. Chlorobenzilate has a low mammalian toxicity but there are some concerns regarding its potential for bio-concentration. It has a low toxicity to birds, a moderate toxicity for fish and honeybees.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Drainflow: Slightly mobile; Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Bees acute unknown ecotoxicity: Moderate
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
Moderate alert:
Possible Carcinogen
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An obsolete non-systemic acaricide that was used to control mites on fruit and also in bee hives
Example pests controlled
Mites; Ticks
Example applications
Citrus; Walnuts; Beehives; Cotton; Grapes
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Considered obsolete but may be available in some countries
Introduction & key dates
circa 1953, introduced
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 by Mutual Recognition of Authorisation and/or national regulations in the following EEA countries
ISIceland
NONorway
                 
Additional information
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₁₆H₁₄Cl₂O₃
Canonical SMILES
CCOC(=O)C(C1=CC=C(C=C1)Cl)(C2=CC=C(C=C2)Cl)O
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
RAPBNVDSDCTNRC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C16H14Cl2O3/c1-2-21-15(19)16(20,11-3-7-13(17)8-4-11)12-5-9-14(18)10-6-12/h3-10,20H,2H2,1H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide, Miticide
Substance groups
Organochloride insecticide; Bridged diphenyl insecticide; Organochloride acaricide; Bridged diphenyl acaricide; Diarylmethane compound
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Nervous system toxin with contact action
CAS RN
510-15-6
EC number
208-110-2
CIPAC number
119
US EPA chemical code
028801
PubChem CID
10522
CLP index number
607-159-00-0
Molecular mass
325.19
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
ethyl bis(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxyacetate
IUPAC name
ethyl 4,4'-dichlorobenzilate
CAS name
ethyl 4-chloro-α-(4-chlorophenyl)-a-hydroxybenzeneacetate
Other status information
Rotterdam Convention (Class O) - subject to PIC regulations; Phytotoxic to some top fruit; PAN Bad Actor Chemical
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Class (HRAC MoA class)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Class (WSSA MoA class)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Class (IRAC MoA class)
2A
Fungicide Resistance Class (FRAC MOA class)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Aculus pelekassi, Panonychus ulmi, Tetranychus mcdanieli, Tetranychus urticae, Galerucella birmanica, plus others
Physical state
Colourless solid when pure
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Makhteshim-Agan
  • Ciba-Geigy AG
  • Nippon Kayaku
Example products using this active
  • Folbex smoke-strips
  • Kop-Mite
  • Akar
  • Acaraben
  • Folbex
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate or as a wettable powder.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
10
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET. Available online but no longer updated. (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Acetone
-
Miscible
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Methanol
-
600000
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Hexane
-
Miscible
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Toluene
-
Melting point (°C)
37
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
3.80 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.58
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database. Dataset is no longer available.
4 = Verified data
High
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
Soluble
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Data type
Regulatory data - observed in metabolism and farm animal feeding studies
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.33
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.12
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET. Available online but no longer updated. (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility. If applied directly to plants, drift is a concern & mitigation is advisable
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
2.27 X 10-02
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database. Dataset is no longer available.
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
Volatilisation as max % of applied dose lost
From plant surface
- - -
From soil surface
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
23
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET. Available online but no longer updated. (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
20
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ (days) on plant matrix
Value
10.8
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 4.8-18.0 days, 2 citrus crops, various matrices, n=5
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ (days) on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Air degradation
As this parameter is not normally measured directly, a surrogate measure is used: ‘Photochemical oxidative DT₅₀’. Where data is available, this can be found in the Fate Indices section below.
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database. Dataset is no longer available.
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
2810
Notes and range
Best available data
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
0.72 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
1.27 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
Photochemical oxidative DT₅₀ (hrs) as indicator of long-range air transport risk
- - -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
750
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Estimated
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Known metabolites

None

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2784
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET. Available online but no longer updated. (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
2250
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Anas platyrhynchos
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
1.01
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other bee species (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other bee species (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.7
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET. Available online but no longer updated. (click here )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Tropical Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Tropical Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2784
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET. Available online but no longer updated. (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
- - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.02
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I; List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
IARC Group 3 carcinogen - not classifiable; Canada Health - considered to be carcinogenic
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Incompatible with highly alkaline materials
IMDG Transport Hazard Class 9
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302
Environment: H400, H410
WHO Classification
Not classified: Obsolete (Not classified: Obsolete)
UN Number
UN3077
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
Shelf-life, storage, stability and reactivity
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
chlorobenzilate
French
chlorobenzilate
German
Chlorbenzilat
Danish
chlorobenzilat
Italian
clorobenzilato
Spanish
clorbenzilato
Greek
chlorobenzilate
Polish
chlorobenzylat
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
chloorbenzilaat
Norwegian
-

Record last updated: 23/02/2024
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242