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Linuron (Ref: HOE 02810)
Last updated: 23/02/2024
(Also known as: DPX Z0326; AE F002810)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
Moderately persistent; GUS: Transition state; Drainflow: Slightly mobile; Potential for particle bound transport: Medium
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Birds acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Birds chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate; Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: Moderate; Earthworms acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Earthworms chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
High alert:
Mammals chronic toxicity: High; Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A herbicide for the pre- and post-emergence control of annual grass and broad-leaved weeds
Example pests controlled
Chickweed; Prickly lettuce; Lambsquarter; Crabgrass; Goosegrass
Example applications
Wide variety of crops including asparagus, carrots, parsnips, beans, cereals; Cotton; Coffee; Tea; Rice; Ornamentals
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1965, introduced
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Italy/Germany
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
               
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 by Mutual Recognition of Authorisation and/or national regulations in the following EEA countries
ISIceland
NONorway
                 
Additional information
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₉H₁₀Cl₂N₂O₂
Canonical SMILES
CN(C(=O)NC1=CC(=C(C=C1)Cl)Cl)OC
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
XKJMBINCVNINCA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C9H10Cl2N2O2/c1-13(15-2)9(14)12-6-3-4-7(10)8(11)5-6/h3-5H,1-2H3,(H,12,14)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
linuron -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance groups
Urea herbicide; Phenylurea herbicide
Minimum active substance purity
950 g kg⁻¹
Known relevant impurities
EU dossier - TCB 1 mg kg⁻¹ max; TCAB 1 mg kg⁻¹ max; TCAOB 1 mg kg⁻¹ max
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, systemic with contact and residual action. Inhibits photosynthesis (photosystem II)
CAS RN
330-55-2
EC number
206-356-5
CIPAC number
76
US EPA chemical code
035506
PubChem CID
9502
CLP index number
006-021-00-1
Molecular mass
249.09
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea
CAS name
N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methoxy-N-methylurea
Other status information
OSPAR candidate; Potential groundwater contaminant; Marine Pollutant; Chemical subject to PIC regulations: GB Part 2
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
UK statutory standard for the protection of aquatic life in inland, coastal and territorial waters: 2 µg l⁻¹
Herbicide Resistance Class (HRAC MoA class)
C2
Herbicide Resistance Class (WSSA MoA class)
7
Insecticide Resistance Class (IRAC MoA class)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Class (FRAC MOA class)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
White crystalline solid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • AgriGuard
  • DAPT
  • Nufarm UK
  • Makhteshim-Agan
  • United Phosphorus
Example products using this active
  • Afalon 450 SC
  • Linuron 50SC
  • Blios
  • Uranus
  • Lorox
Formulation and application details
Available in a variety of formulations including wettable powders, emulsifiable concentrates and suspension concentrates
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
63.8
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
395000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Acetone
-
292000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Ethyl acetate
-
170000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Methanol
-
75000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Toluene
-
Melting point (°C)
93
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Degradation point (°C)
220
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.00 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
Insoluble
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
-
Data type
Regulatory data
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
-
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.49
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
Not applicable
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.051
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
2.00 X 10-04
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
211nm
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
70.2
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
at 20 °C 97.4%
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
57.6
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
57.6
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
48
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
210
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Persistent
DT₉₀ (field)
218
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
EU 2016 dossier lab studies DT₅₀ (actual0 range 10.1-168.4 days, DT₉₀ range 70.3-559 days; EU 2012 dossier Lab studies DT₅₀ range 38-135 days, field studies DT₅₀ range 13-82 days, DT₉₀ range 70-365 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
Stable
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Stable
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
1460
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Very persistent
Note
Stable pH 5 to pH 9 at 22 °C
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
24.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
13
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately fast
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
15.7
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Slightly mobile
Koc
842.8
Notes and range
EU 2016 dossier: Kd range 11.48-21.89 mL g⁻¹, Koc range 547-1159 mL g⁻¹, Soils=4; Literature data: Kd range 0.50-41.2 mL g⁻¹, Koc range 92.0-2839 mL g⁻¹, soils=39, mostly irrigated soils (R4)
Freundlich
Kf
10.43
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Slightly mobile
Kfoc
559
1/n
0.87
Notes and range
EU 2016 dossier: Kf range 6.28-19.37 mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 484-654 mL g⁻¹, 1/n range 0.80-0.91, Soils =4; EU 2002 dossier kf range 3-12 mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 410-463 mL g⁻¹, Soils=3; Literature data: Kf range 0.01-51.3 mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range 2.0-2156 mL g⁻¹, 1/n range 0.70-3.03, soils=39, mostly irrigarted soils (R4)
pH sensitivity
No
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
2.11 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
8.99 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Slightly mobile Calculated -
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
49
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
8 -
Known soil metabolites
Metabolite
Major/Minor fraction
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Notes
3,4-dichloroaniline
- - -
desmethoxy linuron
Major fraction 0.613 -
N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N'-methylurea
Major fraction 0.550 Anaerobic
desmethyl linuron
- - Photolysis
Known groundwater metabolites
Metabolite
EC SANCO/221/2000 relevancy
ADI (mg kg⁻¹ bodyweight day⁻¹)
WHO drinking water guidance value (μg L⁻¹ day⁻¹)
3,4-dichloroaniline
Relevancy unknown - -
desmethyl linuron
Relevancy unknown - -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
norlinuron - Water (Anaerobic) - -
desmethoxy linuron - Water (Anaerobic) - -
demethoxymonolinuron - Water (Anaerobic) - -
3,4-dichlorobenzeneamine DCA - - -
desmethoxy monlinuron - Water (Anaerobic) - -
(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea DCPU - - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1146
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
2
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP Evaluation Documents / and other DEFRA (UK) documents; Also Chemicals Regulation Division, Health and Safety Executive (HSE), UK (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
High
(ppm diet)
25 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
6
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat Reproductive NOAEL
High
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
314
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
1250 mg kg feed⁻¹
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Colinus virginianus
-
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
13.9
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Anas platyrhynchos NOAEL
Moderate
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 500
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Eisenia foetida corr
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
6.78
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Eisenia foetida corr
Moderate
Soil micro-organisms
Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effectt
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes

Dose: 1.9 kg ha⁻¹ 100 Day
-
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
57.06
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Folsomia candida corr
-
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 97.8
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 112.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Apis mellifera
Low
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic as 10-day LDD₅₀ ug/ber/day
41.5
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Apis mellifera
-
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other bee species (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other bee species (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps) as Mortality LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
> 950
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites) as Mortality LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
42.66
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles) as Mortality LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
927
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Poecilus cupreus
-
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
3.15
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Tropical Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 3.31
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Danio rerio Embryo
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.31
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna 24 hr
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.18
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Tropical Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
2.9
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
10.0
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chironomus riparius 1 day
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
9.5
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Chironomus riparius
Moderate
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.017
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.016
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Raphidocelis subcapitata 72 hr
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.01
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Unknown species
Moderate
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1146
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.85
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat 4 hr (nose only aerosol)
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.003
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
None allocated
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.0063
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Dermal penetration studies (%)
0.5-3.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
concentration dependent
-
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Minimal risk from dietary exposure
Risk assessment indicates ARfD would not normally be execeeded
Occupational
Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation and dermal contact
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
May cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea if ingested
US EPA - possible human carcinogen; CLP data - suspected carcingen
Endocrine issues - Competitive binding to androgen receptor, thyroid receptor agonist
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
IMDG Transport Hazard Class 9
Not explosive or oxidising
Not expected to auto-ignite; Not highly flammable
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H351, H360Df, H373
Environment: H400, H410
WHO Classification
III (Slightly hazardous)
UN Number
UN3077
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group III (minor danger)
Shelf-life, storage, stability and reactivity
-
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Record last updated: 23/02/2024
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242