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Picloram (Ref: X 159868)
Last updated: 17/07/2024
(Also known as: piclorame; picloram acid)

SUMMARY
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
GUS: High leachability; Drainflow: Very mobile
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Birds acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Birds chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate; Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Fish chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: Moderate; Bees acute oral ecotoxicity: Moderate; Earthworms chronic ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
High alert:
Endocrine disrupter
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A persistent herbicide for the control of broad-leaved weeds on non-crop and utility areas
Example pests controlled
Woody plants; Brush; Broad-leaved weeds including leafy spurge, knapweeds, thistles, toadflax, birdsfood trefoil and hoary cress. Will not control crucifers
Example applications
OSR; Non-cropped areas; Rangeland
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1963, introduced
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
31/12/2029
UK LERAP status
Check label - may vary with formulation
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Poland/Czech republic
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
15/02/2028
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
No
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
     
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
     
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 by Mutual Recognition of Authorisation and/or national regulations in the following EEA countries
ISIceland
NONorway
                 
Additional information
Also used in
Australia, Morocco
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₆H₃Cl₃N₂O₂
Canonical SMILES
C1(=C(C(=NC(=C1Cl)Cl)C(=O)O)Cl)N
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
NQQVFXUMIDALNH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C6H3Cl3N2O2/c7-1-3(10)2(8)5(9)11-4(1)6(12)13/h(H2,10,11)(H,12,13)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance groups
Pyridine herbicide; Picolinic acid herbicide
Minimum active substance purity
920 g kg⁻¹
Known relevant impurities
EU dossier - hexachlorobenzene 0.05 g kg⁻¹
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, systemic absorbed by roots and leaves and translocated. Synthetic auxin.
CAS RN
1918-02-1
EC number
217-636-1
CIPAC number
174
US EPA chemical code
005101
PubChem CID
15965
CLP index number
No data found
Molecular mass
241.46
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2-carboxylic acid
CAS name
4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Class (HRAC MoA class)
O
Herbicide Resistance Class (WSSA MoA class)
4
Insecticide Resistance Class (IRAC MoA class)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Class (FRAC MOA class)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Light brown to tan coloured solid
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • AgriGuard
  • Dow AgroSciences
  • Nomix Environ
  • Pan Agriculture
Example products using this active
  • Galera
  • Tordone 22K
  • Tordone 101
  • Grazon P+D
  • Amdon
Formulation and application details
Usually suppled as a liquid concentrate or as granules
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
488
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
10
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
n-Heptane
-
105
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Xylene
-
23900
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Acetone
-
19100
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Methanol
-
Melting point (°C)
174
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Degradation point (°C)
174
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.20 X 10-02 Calculated -
Log P
-1.92
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Fat solubility of residues
Solubility
Insoluble
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
-
Data type
Regulatory data
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
-
Density (g ml⁻¹)
1.81
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous data from online sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
1.8
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Strong acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
2.0 X 10-03
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
4.0 X 10-09
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-volatile
Volatilisation as max % of applied dose lost
From plant surface
- - -
From soil surface
- - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
Unbuffered pH4.42 solution: 223nm = 28900
Acidic solution: 223nm = 28700, 293nm = 2100
Basic solution: 223nm = 30400, 293nm = 2100
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
72.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
at 20 °C
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
23.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
23.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
33.7
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
76.4
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately persistent
DT₉₀ (field)
112.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
42.6
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
worst case
-
Note
EU draft RAR 2021 dossier Lab studies (normalised) DT₅₀ range 15.1-42.6 days, DT₉₀ (measured) range 50.3-141.0 days;, Soils=4; Field studies (2009 EFSA conclusion) DT₅₀ range 20-49 days, DT₉₀ range 67-163 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ (days) on plant matrix
Value
7.7
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Grass blades, n=1
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ (days) on and in plant matrix
Value
8.0
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
OSR leaves, n=1
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
2.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Moderately fast
Note
DT₅₀: 3.5 days sterile water , 2 days natural water both in summer sunlight 40 deg N and pH 5
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Stable
Note
Stable pH 5 to pH 9, at 25 °C
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
196.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Slow
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
80.8
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Stable
Air degradation
As this parameter is not normally measured directly, a surrogate measure is used: ‘Photochemical oxidative DT₅₀’. Where data is available, this can be found in the Fate Indices section below.
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd (mL g⁻¹)
-
DW3 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. Dataset is no longer available.
3 = Unverified data of known source
Very mobile
Koc (mL g⁻¹)
13
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf (mL g⁻¹)
0.46
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Mobile
Kfoc (mL g⁻¹)
19.6
1/n
0.858
Notes and range
EU draft 2021 RAR dossier Kf range 0.22-0.85 mL g⁻¹, Kfoc range11-54 mL g⁻¹, 1/n range 0.764-0.946, Soils=5
pH sensitivity
Yes - soils pH >5 show lower adsorption
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
4.14 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
1.07 X 1000 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Very mobile Calculated -
Photochemical oxidative DT₅₀ (hrs) as indicator of long-range air transport risk
300
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Calculated using the Atkinson method. Assumed 1.5E+06 OH/cm³, 12 hr
Substance of concern for long-range air transport
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
74
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Whole fish
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Known soil metabolites
Metabolite
Major/Minor fraction
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Notes
4-amino-2,3,5-trichloropyridine
Major fraction 0.104 -
Known groundwater metabolites

None

Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-hydroxypicolinic acid 6-OH picloram Plant - -
4-amino-2,3,5-trichloropyridine (Ref: K-041160) PYR Plant - -
oxamic acid - Water (Photolysis) - -
3-oxo-beta-alanine - Water (Photolysis) - -
aminopyralid (Ref: XDE 750) - Water; Sediment - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Terrestrial ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
4012
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 yr
-
(ppm diet)
20 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
> 1000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat Reproductive NOAEL
Low
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1944
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Anas platyrhynchos
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
> 5620 mg kg feed⁻¹
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Colinus virginianus
-
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
65
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Colinus virginianus
Moderate
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 4475
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Eisenia foetida
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
0.167
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Eisenia foetida 56 day
Moderate
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Collembola
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 83.5
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 63.05
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Apis mellifera
Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other bee species (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other bee species (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Beneficial insects (Ladybirds)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Lacewings)
- - -
Beneficial insects (Parasitic wasps) as Mortality LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
23.45
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
Beneficial insects (Predatory mites) as Mortality LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
23.45
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Typhlodromus pyri
-
Beneficial insects (Ground beetles)
- - -
Aquatic ecotoxicology
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
8.8
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.55
A4 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss 70 day
Moderate
Tropical Freshwater Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
15.49
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents / FAO data, IPCS INCHEM data (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Danio rerio
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
44.2
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Temperate Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
6.79
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Tropical Freshwater Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
89.5
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Chironomus riparius
Low
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
102
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Lemna gibba
Low
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
> 78.69
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
4012
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
Low
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.035
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rat 4 hr (whole body)
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.3
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rabbit SF=100
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.3
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rabbit SF=100
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
None allocated
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.3
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Rabbit SF=100
-
Dermal penetration studies (%)
0.1-10.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
concentration dependent
-
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
No unacceptable risks to bystanders identified
Occupational
No unacceptable risks to operators or other workers identified
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
0.1
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
EU Dir 89/778/EC limit; Calc MAC=900 µg l⁻¹
-
Mammalian dose elimination route and rate
Mainly via urine (69-86%) and faeces (5-25%)
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B3 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
C3 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
Yes, known to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
 
General human health issues
Slightly toxic
IARC Group 3 carcinogen - not classifiable; US EPA - some evidence to suggest not a human carcinogen
Possible liver toxicant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Prevent generation of dust
Not oxidising or explosive
Not expected to auto-ignite; Not highly flammable
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H312, H319, H332, H335
Environment: H400, H410, H412
WHO Classification
U (Unlikely to present an acute hazard)
UN Number
Not regulated
Waste disposal & packaging
-
Shelf-life, storage, stability and reactivity
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
picloram
French
piclorame
German
Picloram
Danish
picloram
Italian
picloram
Spanish
picloram
Greek
-
Polish
pikloram
Swedish
pikloram
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-
Norwegian
-

Record last updated: 17/07/2024
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242