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Acrolein
Last updated: 04/03/2020
(Also known as: acrylaldehyde; ethylene aldehyde; acrylic aldehyde; magnacide; aqualin)

SUMMARY
Acrolein is a herbicide without EU regulatory approval for use. It is highly soluble in water, highly volatile and, based on its chemical properties, it is mobile and has a high potential to leach to groundwater. It is not considered to be persistent in soil or aquatic systems. It is highly toxic to mammals and there is some concern that it may bioaccumulate. It is classified as an irritant. It shows a high level of toxicity to birds and moderate to high toxicity for most aquatic species. There is little information on its toxicity to biodiversity.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An algicide, slimicide and aquatic herbicide used for clearing ditches and drainage canals
Example pests controlled
Submersed weeds such as potamogeton, spirogyra, zannichella; Floating weeds such as watercress, water hyacincth, water primrose; Algae; Snails
Example applications
Irrigation canals; Ditches; Drainage channels
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1962
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
No
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
C₃H₄O
Canonical SMILES
C=CC=O
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
HGINCPLSRVDWNT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C3H4O/c1-2-3-4/h2-3H,1H2
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
acrolein -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide; Molluscicide (aquatic)
Substance group
Aldehyde
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Contact action which degrades cell structure
CAS RN
107-02-8
EC number
203-453-4
CIPAC number
None allocated
US EPA chemical code
000701
PubChem CID
7847
Molecular mass
56.06
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
prop-2-enal
IUPAC name
prop-2-enal
CAS name
2-propenal
Other status information
Marine Pollutant; Water pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not known
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
-
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless to yellow liquid with strong acrid smell
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Magnacide H
  • Crolean
  • Aqualin
  • Aquinite
Example products using this active
  • Baker Petrolite Co.
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
208000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Benzene
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Diethyl ether
-
Melting point (°C)
-87
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
52.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
-17.8
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
(closed cup)
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
9.77 X 10-01 Calculated -
Log P
-0.01
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
0.84
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C
29000000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C
19.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index
4.33 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.60 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
17
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
0.4
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
17
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
General literature values DT₅₀ range laboratory 7.5-10.2 hrs, field studies DT₅₀ range 7-28 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
4
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately fast
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
1.5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
Note
pH sensitive: 3.5 days at pH 5, 0.2 days at pH 10
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Very mobile
Koc
3.0
Notes and range
Other sources: 1 mL g⁻¹ (US3; DW3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
344
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochirus
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
29
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
5
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
(ppm diet)
- -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 19
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Colinus virginianus
High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.15
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.0091
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Pimephales promelas mortality
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.022
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.07
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.05
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Raphidocelis subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
Intermediate (class II) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
29
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
231
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
8.3
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Highly toxic, causes respiratory congestion and heart failure
IARC group 3 carcinogen
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
-
EC Risk Classification
T+ - Very toxic: R26
T - Toxic: R24/25
H - Handling risks: R11, R34
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50
EC Safety Classification
S23, S26, S28, S45, S61, S36/27/39
WHO Classification
Ib (Highly hazardous / Highly hazardous)
UN Number
1092
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
acrolein
French
acroléine
German
Acrolein
Danish
acrolein
Italian
acrilaldeide
Spanish
acroleina
Greek
-
Polish
akroleina
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
acroleine

Record last updated: 04/03/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242