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PhD Oportunity with Syngenta & the University of Hertfordshire

carbendazim (Ref: BAS 346F)
** carbendazol ** carbendazim (MBC) ** carbendazime ** MBC ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Carbendazim is a fungicide that is currently approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, is volatile and moderately mobile. It is moderately persistent in soil and can be very persistent in water systems under certain conditions. Carbendazim has a low mammalian toxicity and is not expected to bioaccumulate. It is, however, reported as a reproduction/developmental toxicant. It is moderately toxic to honeybees and most aquatic organisms. It is highly toxic to earthworms but non-toxic to birds.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for carbendazim

Description: A fungicide used to control a a range of diseases including Septoria, Fusarium and Sclerotina. Can also be a pesticide transformation product

Example pests controlled: Husk spot; Chocolate spot; Grey mould; Green mould; Crown rot

Example applications: Beans; Macademia nuts; Lentils; Chickpeas; Strawberries; Sugarcane; Cereals

Efficacy & activity: Wheat/Fungal infections=Low

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1973, first reported; 1974, first introduced

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Germany
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide, Metabolite
Metabolite Type Soil
Substance group Benzimidazole
Minimum active substance purity 960 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - 3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine 0.0005 g/kg; 2,3-diamino-phenazine 0.0006 g/kg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic with curative and protectant activity. Inhibition of mitosis and cell division (Beta-tubulin assembly in mitosis).
CAS RN 10605-21-7
EC number 234-323-0
CIPAC number 263
US EPA chemical code 115001/128872
CLP index number 613-048-00-8
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C9H9N3O2
SMILES COC(=O)NC1=NC2=CC=CC=C2N1
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) TWFZGCMQGLPBSX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C9H9N3O2/c1-14-9(13)12-8-10-6-4-2-3-5-7(6)11-8/h2-5H,1H3,(H2,10,11,12,13)
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 191.21
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) methyl 1H-1,3-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate
IUPAC name methyl benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate
CAS name methyl 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate
Other status information Marine Pollutant
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) 1
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Colourless crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms

Can be a metabolite of:
Parent Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
thiophanate-methyl Soil   0.560   Major fraction, Relevant
benomyl Soil     -
thiophanate Soil     Major fraction, Relevant

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • AgriGuard
  • DuPont
  • Nufarm
  • Barclay
Example products using this active
  • Delsene 50 Flo
  • Harvesan
  • Mascot
  • Occidor
  • Ringer
  • Punch SE
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a soluble concentrate that is mixed with water and applied as a spray, used as a drench or pre-planting dip.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for carbendazim

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 8.0 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 300 A5 - Ethanol -
36 A5 - Benzene -
135 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
100 A5 - Chloroform -
Melting point (oC) 305 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 305 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 3.02 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P 1.48 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.45 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 4.2 A5 -
Note: Weak base
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 0.09 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.60 X 10-03 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 2.53 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.50 X 10-01 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 242.5-244nm =10410, two smaller peaks at 279-280.5nm and 285-288 nm = 14670 A3 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 40 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 34.3 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (field) 22 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 132.5 A5 -
DT90 (field) 115 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier Lab studies DT50 range 20-40 days, DT90 range 86-226 days; Field studies DT50 range 11-78 days, DT90 range 36-257 days; Defra give general range as 8-32 days; Other sources: DT50 120 days (F3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 5.6 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 2.2-9.0 days, 2 undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=2
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 8.4 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 2.2-32.0 days, 17 field crops, various matrices, n=32
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable at pH 5 to pH 7, DT50 22-124 days at pH 9
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 350 A5 Persistent
Note pH5:>350 days; pH7:>350 days; pH9: 54-124 days, all @ 22-25 DegC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 33.7 A5 Moderately fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 7.9 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 3.4 A4 Moderately mobile
Kfoc 225
1/n 0.967
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 1.6-6.3 mL/g, Kfoc range 200-246 mL/g, 1/n range 0.87-1.12, Soils=3
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
2-aminobenzimidazole Soil   0.08   Minor fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
5-hydroxymethylbenzimidazole carbamate 5-OH-MBC; 5-OH-carbendazim a=Animal; b=Plant a=1.00 -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for carbendazim

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 25 P4 Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 10000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) > 10 B5 Rat High
(ppm diet) > 100 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2250 A5 Colinus virginianus Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 615 mg kg bw-1 day-1 A5 Anas platyrhynchos -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.19 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0032 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.15 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0015 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.086 F3 Americamysis bahia High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.0133 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 7.7 A5 Scenedemus subspicatus Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 50 A5 Moderate
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) > 756 A5 Low
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 5.4 A5 Eisenia foetida High
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 1.0 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 3000 > Mortality
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect 39 Dose: 0.36 kg ha-1
A5 Aphidius matricariae
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 30 > Mortality
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect 100 Dose: 0.03 kg ha-1
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, protonymph
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 1.5 kg ha-1
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for carbendazim

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 10000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 5.8 A5 Rat, 4 hr (head/nose) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.02 A5 Rabbit, SF-500 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.02 A5 Rat, SF=500 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.02 A5 Rat, SF=500 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Negligible risk to consumers and bystanders
Occupational Low risk to agricultural workers
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Evidence of liver enzyme induction
Possible liver toxicant
USEPA - possible human carcinogen Increase of estrogen production and aromatase activity

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 Health: H340, H360FD
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Mutagenic category 2: R46
Reproduction risk category 2: R60, R61
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S45, S53, S60, S61
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number Usually 3082
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for carbendazim

Language Name
English carbendazim
French carbendazime
German Carbendazim
Danish carbendazim
Italian carbendazim
Spanish carbendazima
Greek carbendazim
Slovenian karbendazim
Polish karbendazym
Swedish karbendazim
Hungarian karbendazim
Dutch carbendazim

Record last updated: Monday 08 January 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk