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1,2-dichloropropane (Ref: ENT 15406 )
Last updated: 04/06/2021
(Also known as: propylene dichloride; 1,2-DCP; dichloro-1,2-propane; dichloropropane; PDC)

SUMMARY
Dichlorpropane is a multi-use substance with insecticidal and fungicidal activity. It is considered obsolete but may be used in some countries. It is a volatile organic compound (VOC) which is highly soluble in water. It can be very persistent in soil systems depending on environmental conditions and it also has poitenrtial to leach to groundwater. 1,2-dichloropropane tends to have a moderate to low toxicity to biodiversity but there are considerable gaps in data. It is moderately toxic to mammals via the oral route and there are concerns regarding its potential to cause reproduction/developmental effects in humans. It is also a recognised irritant.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
Persistent; GUS: High leachability; Drainflow: Mobile
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate
Human health
High alert:
Endocrine distrupter; Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Chemical with a range of agricultural applications including uses a soil fumigant to control nematodes and as an insecticide for stored grain.
Example pests controlled
Nematodes; Flour beetles; Grain beetles
Example applications
Agricultural crops; Stored grain
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Considered obsolete but may be available in some countries
Introduction & key dates
1925, first reported
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Dichloropropane has four isomers (1,1-, 1,2, 1,3- and 1,4-1,2-dichloropropane). 1,2-dichloropropane tends to be the main one used in the agricultrual context and is itself chiral.existing in two enantiomeric forms (S- and R-)
Chemical formula
C₃H₆Cl₂
Canonical SMILES
CC(CCl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
KNKRKFALVUDBJE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C3H6Cl2/c1-3(5)2-4/h3H,2H2,1H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Nematicide, Fumigant, Other substance
Other constituent type
Solvent, Chemical intermediate
Substance group
Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Unknown
CAS RN
78-87-5
EC number
201-152-2
CIPAC number
674
US EPA chemical code
029002
PubChem CID
6564
Molecular mass
112.99
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
rac-(2R)-1,2-dichloropropane
IUPAC name
1,2-dichloropropane
CAS name
1,2-dichloropropane
Other status information
VOC
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not known
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless liquid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Scott Speciality Gases
Example products using this active
  • Nematox
  • Dowfume EB-5
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
2700
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
Miscible
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Methanol
-
Melting point (°C)
-70.0
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Freezing point
-
Boiling point (°C)
95.0
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.05 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.02
AC3 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.18
AC3 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.94 X 1006
AC3 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
285.74
CA3 CA = Medical and toxicological databases and information systems e.g. TOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
700
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
140
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
General literature states chemical is persistent with DT₅₀ longer than 7 wks. Other sources: 700 days (US3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
18.5
AC3 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slow
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
Resistant to hydrolysis DT₅₀ 175-1400 days.
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
US3 US = US Dept of Agriculture National Resources Conservation Service - various datasheets, databases and online sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Mobile
Koc
50
Notes and range
Other data sources Koc range 46-51 mL g⁻¹ (USDA)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
4.94 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
4.42 X 1000 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Medium Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
4
AC3 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1947
V2 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
280
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Lepomis macrochirus
Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
23.5
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
24.8
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
50.0
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
4240
AC3 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Eisenia foetida
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1947
V2 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
1100
V2 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
14.0
AC3 AC = EC Joint Research Centre ESIS European Chemical Substance Information Systems including EINECS, now integrated with the database provided by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.04 mg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
Yes, known to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Liver, blood, kidney and lung toxicant
Strong narcotic
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Flammable, explosive when mixed with air
Corrosive
Toxic and irritating gases may be generated in a fire
CLP classification 2013
-
EC Risk Classification
+F - Flammable - R11
Xn - Harmful: R20, R22
EC Safety Classification
S2, S16, S24
WHO Classification
FM (Fumigant, not classified)
UN Number
Usually 1279
Waste disposal & packaging
Packaging Group II (medium danger)
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
1,2-dichloropropane
French
1,2-dichloropropane
German
1,2-Dichlorpropan
Danish
1,2-dichloropropane
Italian
-
Spanish
1,2-dicloropropano
Greek
-
Polish
dwuchloropropan
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 04/06/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242