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carboxin (Ref: D 735)
** carboxine ** carbathiin ** vitavax ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Carboxin is an effective agricultural fungicide that is approved for use in the EU subject to Member State approval. It is moderately soluble in water, is non-volatile and, based on its chemical properties, would not normally be expected to leach to groundwater. It tends not to persist in soil or water systems. Whilst it is an irritant, its mammalian toxicity is low and no significant health effects have been identified. It shows a low or moderate ecotoxicity to most species.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for carboxin

Description: An anilide fungicide for bunts and smuts normally that is normally used as a seed treatment

Example pests controlled: Smut; Rots; Bunt; Blight; Leaf stripe; Net blotch

Example applications: Rice; Vegetables; Corn; Wheat; Barley; Oats; Turf grass; Cotton

Efficacy & activity: Carboxin has been shown to be an effective fungicide via field trials and long use globally.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1966, first reported; 1969, first introduced

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur UK
Date inclusion expires 31/05/2021
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C12H13NO2S
Canonical SMILES CC1=C(SCCO1)C(=O)NC2=CC=CC=C2
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) GYSSRZJIHXQEHQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C12H13NO2S/c1-9-11(16-8-7-15-9)12(14)13-10-5-3-2-4-6-10/h2-6H,7-8H2,1H3,(H,13,14)
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide
Substance group Oxathiin
Minimum active substance purity 970 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic, inhibits mitochondrial function. Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor.
CAS RN 5234-68-4
EC number 226-031-1
CIPAC number 273
US EPA chemical code 090201
PubChem CID 21307
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 235.30
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 2-methyl-N-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-1,4-oxathiine-3-carboxamide
IUPAC name 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-oxathiine-3-carboxanilide
CAS name 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-N-phenyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxamide
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) 7
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Colourless crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Chemtura Corp
  • Crompton Europe
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Uniroyal
Example products using this active
  • Vitavax 200FF
  • Krisvax
  • Kemikar
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Usually formulated as a flowable concentrate that is diluted with water for use as a seed treament.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for carboxin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 134 A5 Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 220000 A5 - Acetone -
110000 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
89000 A5 - Methanol -
53000 A5 - Toluene -
Melting point (oC) 91.5 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 210 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.00 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P 2.3 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.36 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 0.5 A5 -
Note: Strong acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.02 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.20 X 10-05 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index -2.15 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.15 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 205nm = 17443, 295nm = 6585 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 61.2 A5 at 20oC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 0.5 Click here to see a warning relating to modelling and this active substance A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 0.28 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 3.3 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 1.99 A5 -
DT90 (field) 11.1 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier Lab studies DT50 range 0.07-1.68 days, DT90 range 0.23-3.49 days; field studies DT50 range 0.27-11 days, DT90 range 0.9-37 days; Other sources: DT50 1 day (R3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.1 A5 Fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable between pH 4 and pH 9
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 17.3 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 13.6 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd 1.3 A5 Moderately mobile
Koc 99.4
Notes and range EU dossier Kd range 1.03-1.78 mL/g, Koc range 81-124 mL/g, Soils=5
Freundlich Kf 1.95 A5 Very mobile
Kfoc 1.3
1/n 0.80
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 1.56-2.71 mL/g, Kfoc range 123-213 mL/g, 1/n range 0.79-0.81, Soils=5
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
carboxin sulfoxide This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.782   Major fraction, Relevant
oxycarboxin (Ref: F 461) This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.170   Major, Relevant
oxathiine amide sulfoxide This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.274   Major fraction, Relevant
oxathiine amide sulfone This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.145   Major fraction, Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
acetanilide - Plant - -
4-hydroxycarboxin sulfone carboxin Rat M03 Rat (Urine & Bile) - -
4-O-glucuronyl-2-hydroxycarboxin carboxin Rat M04 Rat (Urine) - -
4-hydroxycarboxin carboxin Rat M07 Rat (Urine, Faeces & Bile) - -
monomethoxy dihydroxycarboxin carboxin Rat M09 Rat (Urine & Faeces) - -
2-methoxycarboxin sulfoxide-4-glucuronide carboxin Rat M11 Rat (Bile & Urine) - -
4-O-glucuronyl carboxin carboxin Rat M12 Rat (Bile) - -
- - - - -
2-[2-anilino-2-oxoacetyl)thio]ethyl acetate - Soil; Water; Groundwater - -
2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-phenyl-1,4-oxathiane-3-carboxamide-4-oxide hydrated carbon sulfoxide; carboxin M09 Soil; Water; Groundwater - -
2-methyl-5,6-dihydro-1,4-oxathiine-3-carboxylic acid-4-oxide PH-3; alpha-vinylsulfinyl acetanilide; P/V-05; M234 Soil; Water; Groundwater - -
4-O-glucuronyl carboxin sulfoxide carboxin Rat M01 Rat (Urine & Bile) - -
4-hydroxycarboxin sulfoxide carboxin Rat M02 Rat (Urine & Bile) - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for carboxin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 13 Q2 Estimated Low potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 2588 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 5.5 A5 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2150 A5 Colinus virginianus Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 5000 mg kg feed-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 2.3 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.32 A5 Cyprinidae Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 57 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.32 A4 Daphnia magna, 17 day Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.92 L3 Lemna gibba Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.48 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 250 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 50 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect 0 A4 Folsomia candida, % Mortality [Dose: <1g carboxin sulfone/kg soil] -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 0
-21.5
Mortality
Reproduction
Dose: 776 mg carboxin + 770 mg thiram/kg seed
A5 Aleochara bilineata, adult/juvenile
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 660 g ha-1
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for carboxin

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 2588 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 4000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 4.7 A5 Rat, 4 hr -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.008 A3 Rat, 2 year, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A4 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.055 A3 Rat, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 3.3-5.0 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Negligible risk to the public due to pattern of use
Occupational Acceptable risks with PPE/PPC
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) 0.1 EU Dir 89/778/EC limit; A5 Calc MAC=4.8 μg l-1 -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A3; D2; C3; D0; E3

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Mild skin sensitiser
Possible kidney toxicant
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 3: R40
Xn - Harmful: R43
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S36/37, S60, S61
WHO Classification III - Slightly hazardous
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for carboxin

Language Name
English carboxin
French carboxine
German Carboxin
Danish carboxin
Italian carbossina
Spanish carboxina
Greek carboxin
Slovenian karboksin
Polish karboksyna
Swedish karboxin
Hungarian karboxin
Dutch carboxin

Record last updated: Tuesday 25 June 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk