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Chlordecone (Ref: ENT 16391)
Last updated: 06/12/2019
(Also known as: clordecone; decachloroketone; kepone)

GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A now banned insecticide that is effective against leaf-cutting insects but less effective on sucking pests. Also has fungicide activity particularly against scab and mildew. Also a metabolite.
Example pests controlled
Ants; Cockroaches; Root borers; Colarado beetle; Rust mite; Wireworms; Powdery mildew
Example applications
Tobacco; Potatoes; Ornamentals including gladioli; Fruit including bananas, citrus
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Obsolete/Banned
Introduction & key dates
1952, first reported; 1966 commercial production began, USA
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Chlordecone is a chiral molecule
Chemical formula
C₁0Cl₁0O
Canonical SMILES
C1(=O)C2(C3(C4(C1(C5(C2(C3(C(C45Cl)(Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
LHHGDZSESBACKH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10Cl10O/c11-2-1(21)3(12)6(15)4(2,13)8(17)5(2,14)7(3,16)9(6,18)10(8,19)20
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Fungicide, Miticide, Metabolite
Metabolite Type
Soil
Substance group
Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Central nervous system stimulant. GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist. Has stomach action and also weak contact activity
CAS RN
143-50-0
EC number
205-601-3
CIPAC number
297
US EPA chemical code
027701
PubChem CID
299
Molecular mass
490.64
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
(1E,3aE,5bE,6E)-1,1a,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-decachloro-1,1a,3,3a,4,5,5a,5b-octahydro-2H-1,3,4-(epimethanetriyl)cyclobuta[cd]pentalen-2-one
IUPAC name
perchloropentacyclodecan-5-one
CAS name
1,1a,3,3a,4,5,5,5a,5b,6-decachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta[cd]pentalen-2-one
Other status information
LRTAP Annex I; POP (recommended for Annex 1 of POPs Treaty); OSPAR soc; Air pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
2B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
None recorded
Physical state
Tan to white coloured solid depending upon purity
Can be a metabolite of:
Parent
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
mirex Soil - Not assessed under 91/414 or 1107/2009
kelevan Soil - -
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • GC 1189
  • Kepone
  • Merex
  • Curlone
Example products using this active
  • Hopkins
  • Allied Chemicals
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied formulated as bait or as a wettable powder
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
3.0
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Melting point (°C)
Decomposes before melting
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
Decomposes before boiling
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
350
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
-
Flashpoint (°C)
Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
3.16 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.5
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
3.5 X 10-05
B3 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
at 25 °C
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
2.53 X 10-03
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index
1.49 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
4.12 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
450
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Very persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
300
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Environmentally stable. Literature states it remains in soil for up to 1-2 years (B4)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
Stable
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Stable
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Stable
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
Stable
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
Stable
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
2500
Notes and range
Log10 Koc 3.38-3.415
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
60000
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
Menidia menidia
High potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
91.3
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
237
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Coturnix japonica
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.02
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.03
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.011
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.010
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Americamysis bahia
High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.27
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Chlorococcum spp.
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
105
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
91.3
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Food residues were a problem prior to the substance being banned
May be absorbed via ingestion
Occupational
A large number of cases of occupational poisoning have been reported
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Moderately toxic
Possible liver & kidney toxicant
May cause severe tremor
IARC Group 2B carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Binding to estrogen and androgen receptors
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H301, H311, H351
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
T - Toxic: R24, R25
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S22, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification
O (Obsolete substance)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
chlordecone
French
chlordecone
German
Chlordecon
Danish
-
Italian
-
Spanish
clordecon
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 06/12/2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242