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azobenzene (Ref: ENT 14611)
** benzeneazobenzene ** diazobenzene ** azobenzide ** azobenzol ** azodibenzene ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for azobenzene

Description: A now obsolete insecticide that was formely used to control mites in a range of situations including glasshouses

Example pests controlled: Boll weevils; Aphids; Spidermites

Example applications: Glasshouse ornamentals including roses, flowering plants

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Obsolete

Introduction & key dates: 1945, first reported

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Not applicable
Date inclusion expires Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) Not applicable
Listed in EU database No

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism Isomeric existing in the cis- and trans-forms. The two forms are photo-isomeric switching between forms depending on the light.
Chemical formula C12H10N2
Canonical SMILES C1=CC=C(C=C1)N=NC2=CC=CC=C2
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) DMLAVOWQYNRWNQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C12H10N2/c1-3-7-11(8-4-1)13-14-12-9-5-2-6-10-12/h1-10H/b14-13+
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

Click to access the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) website
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams:
Common Name Relationship Link
Cis-azobenzene Isomer Click here for the CCDC structure diagram

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Acaricide, Ovicide, Miticide
Substance group Bridged diphenyl
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Acts by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, selective action
CAS RN 103-33-3
EC number 203-102-5
CIPAC number 241
US EPA chemical code 007401
PubChem CID 2272
CLP index number 611-001-00-6
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 182.22
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) diphenyldiazene
IUPAC name azobenzene
CAS name diphenyldiazene
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not known
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Tetranychus urticae
Physical state Orange crystals
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Spencer Chemicals
Example products using this active
  • B25
  • Carbyne
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for azobenzene

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 6.4 V3 - @ 25 DegC Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) - - -
Melting point (oC) 69 V3 -
Boiling point (oC) - - -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) 476 Q3 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 6.61 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.82 V3 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity - - -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC -2.95 V3 -
Note: Very strong acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) - - -
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.42 CA2 Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index - - -
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value - - -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - - -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) - - -
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note: -
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - R3 Slightly mobile
Koc 2930
Notes and range Koc range 1350-4510 mL/g
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for azobenzene

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 10 E3 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 1000 V3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.5 F3 Oryzias latipes Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 5.0 F3 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.009 F4 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 1.7 F4 Scenedemus subspicatus Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for azobenzene

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 1000 V3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) - - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Consumer exposure should be low or non-existent since compound is no longer produced or used in most of the developed world
Occupational Occupational exposure should be low or non-existent since compound is no longer produced or used in most of the developed world
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A0; B0; C0; D0; E0

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Harmful is swallowed or inhaled
Tumorigenic agent
IARC Group 3 carcinogen
Probably liver toxicant
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes IMDG Transport class 9
Not compatible with strong oxidising agents
CLP classification 2013 -
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 2: R45
Xn - Harmful: R20, R22, R48, R68
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S45, S53, S60, S1
WHO Classification NL - Not listed
UN Number 3077
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for azobenzene

Language Name
English azobenzene
French azobenzĂȘne
German Azobenzol
Danish -
Italian -
Spanish azobenceno
Greek -
Slovenian -
Polish -
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Wednesday 31 October 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk