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denatonium benzoate (Ref: ASU 90 820 P)
** lidocaine benzyl benzoate ** denathonium benzoate ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Denatonium benzoate is a long-lasting deer repellent that is approved for use in the EU. It has a high aqueous solubility and, based on its chemical properties, appears to have a tendency to leach to groundwater. However, its usage pattern would normally significantly reduce this risk. It is moderately persistent in soils and may persist in water under certain circumstances. Denatonium benzoate is moderately toxic to mammals and has a high tendency to bioaccumulate. It is also an irritant. It is moderately toxic to birds but less so to fish and aquatic invertebrates.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for denatonium benzoate

Description: A repellent used to deter deer damaging deciduous and conifer trees in forests

Example pests controlled: Deer; Other large mammals

Example applications: Forests; Woodland

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: -

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Italy/Poland
Date inclusion expires 31/08/2022
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C28H34N2O3
Canonical SMILES CC[N+](CC)(CC1=CC=CC=C1)CC(=O)NC2=C(C=CC=C2C)C.C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)[O-]
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) VWTINHYPRWEBQY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C21H28N2O.C7H6O2/c1-5-23(6-2,15-19-13-8-7-9-14-19)16-20(24)22-21-17(3)11-10-12-18(21)4;8-7(9)6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h7-14H,5-6,15-16H2,1-4H3;1-5H,(H,8,9)
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Repellent
Substance group Unclassified
Minimum active substance purity 995 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Long lasting, repellent action caused by a combination of optical and bitter taste effects. Deer do not associate the white colour with food.
CAS RN 3734-33-6
EC number 2230-95-2
CIPAC number 845
US EPA chemical code 009106
PubChem CID 19518
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 446.59
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name benzyl diethyl ((2,6-xylylcarbamoyl)methyl) ammonium benzoate
CAS name N-(2-((2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-N,N-diethylbenzeneme-thanaminium benzoate
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White granular powder
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically -
Example products using this active
  • Arbinol B
  • Bitrex
  • Anispray
  • Toxishield
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Often used as a liquid formulation brushed on to tree bark or as a plant dip. 0.2-0.7 g per 1000 trees, applied once each season.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for denatonium benzoate

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 42400 A5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 140000 A5 - Acetone -
4900 A5 - Benzene -
355000 A5 - Ethanol -
2500 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
Melting point (oC) 164.5 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 301 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 1.51 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P 0.18 A4 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity - - -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 4.05 A5 -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) - - -
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) - - -
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 6.69 Calculated High leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 7.33 X 10+00 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 50.7 A5 -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 45 Q2 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note One literature study reports DT50 as approx. 45 days, one other reports slow degradation.
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable at all relevant pH's
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - Q2 Very mobile
Koc 0.9
Notes and range One study
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for denatonium benzoate

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) Low risk A5 Based on LogP < 3 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 841 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 196 A5 Colinus virginianus Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 1000 A4 Salmo gairdneri Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 500 A4 Daphnia magna Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for denatonium benzoate

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 841 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.2 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Negligible risk to bystanders for the proposed patterns of use
Occupational Negligible risk to operators for the proposed patterns of use
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

A0; B0; C0; D0; E0

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Toxic on ingestion - may cause diarrhea, decreased respiratory rate and salivation
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes No explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 None allocated at this time
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases T+ - Very Toxic: R26
Xn - Harmful: R22, R41
N- Dangerous for the environment: R51, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S13, S26, S39, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification NL - Not listed
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for denatonium benzoate

Language Name
English denatonium benzoate
French benzoate de denatonium
German Denatoniumbenzoat
Danish -
Italian -
Spanish benzoato de denatonio
Greek -
Slovenian -
Polish -
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Thursday 23 August 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk