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benzoic acid
** dracylic acid ** benzeneformic acid ** flowers of benjamin ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for benzoic acid

Description: Used as a multi purpose insecticide, fungicide and preservative sometimes added to food-grade oils

Example pests controlled: Microbial pathogens

Example applications: Equipment and machinery where incidental food contact may occur; Rooms and buildings where food is grown or stored]

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: -

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Hungary/Netherlands
Date inclusion expires 31/08/2032
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C7H6O
Canonical SMILES C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)O
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) WPYMKLBDIGXBTP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C7H6O2/c8-7(9)6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5H,(H,8,9)
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

Click to access the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) website
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams:
Common Name Relationship Link
Benzoic acid - Click here for the CCDC structure diagram

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Insecticide, Fungicide, Antimicrobial agent
Substance group Aromatic carboxylic acid
Minimum active substance purity 99%
Known relevant impurities EU dossier: None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Contact action, non-selective
CAS RN 65-85-0
EC number 200-618-2
CIPAC number 622
US EPA chemical code 009101
PubChem CID 243
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 122.12
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name benzoic acid
CAS name carboxybenzene
Other status information Food and Feed additive as a acidity regulator (FLAVIS no. 08.021)
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) None
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) None
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White crystalline solid
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Brinkman UK
  • Fargro
Example products using this active
  • Menno Florades
  • MICROL Preservative
  • Tulsa
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a soluble concentrate.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for benzoic acid

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 6930 A5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 41400 A5 - Carbon tetrachloride -
556000 A5 - Acetone -
9400 A5 - Hexane -
715000 A5 - Methanol -
Melting point (oC) 122.4 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) 249.2 A5 -
Degradation point (oC) >100 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self-ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 7.41 X 1001 Calculated -
Log P 1.87 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.32 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 4.19 A5 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.0381 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 6.714 X 10-04 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index -0.38 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 8.02 X 10-05 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 pH 2: max @ 230nm
pH 4 max @ 228nm
pH 7 max at 224nm
A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 60.0 A5 -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 0.5 Click here to see a warning relating to modelling and this active substance A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 0.5 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 2.1 A3 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier (RAR 2015) lab studies DT50 range 0.23-0.62 days, Soils=3; General literature give DT50 1-10 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - CA2 Moderately mobile
Koc 250
Notes and range Estimated
Freundlich Kf 1.66 A3 Slightly mobile
Kfoc 547
1/n 0.9
Notes and range EU dossier (2015 RAR) scant & incomplete data Kf range 0.23-3.56 mL/g, Kfoc range 18-1550 mL/g
pH sensitivity -

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
Benzoylaminoethanoic acid Hippuric acid Human (urinary) - -
Benzoyl-glucuronic acid - Human (urinary) - -
- - - - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for benzoic acid

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 3.16 F4 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2100 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 120 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Low
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 90.5 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) > 120 a5 Daphnia magna Low
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 55 A5 Daphnia magna Low
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 10 F4 Scenedesmus quadricauda Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees Contact acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute 48 hour LD50 (μg bee-1) - - -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 384 A4 Ensenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for benzoic acid

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class Low (class I) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2100 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 1.2 A5 Rat, 6 hr (whole body) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 5.0 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 5.0 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 100 A3 default -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Risks acceptable for intended uses
Occupational Risks acceptable for intended uses
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

General human health issues Large oral doses may cause abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting
May cause urticaria, asthma, rhinitis and anaphylactic shock
Possible liver, kidney and brain toxicant

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 Health: H315, H372, H318
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R22
Xi - Irritant: R36, R37
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S26
WHO Classification NL - Not listed
US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for benzoic acid

Language Name
English benzoic acid
French acide benzoique
German Benzoesäure
Danish -
Italian acido benzoico
Spanish acido benzoico
Greek -
Slovenian -
Polish -
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Wednesday 31 October 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk