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chloropicrin
** trichloronitromethane ** chlorpicrine ** PS ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for chloropicrin

Description: A preplant soil fumigant used to control soil borne fungi, diseases and nematodes

Example pests controlled: Caterpillars; Aphids; Scale insects; Spidermites; Whiteflies

Example applications: Strawberries; Peppers; Onions; Curcubits; Tobacco; Tomatoes; Ornamentals; Nursery stock; Tree crops, Olives

Efficacy & activity: Published evidence is limited but use has been extensive.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1848, first synthesised; 1908 reported

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Pending
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur UK
Date inclusion expires Pending
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula CCl3NO2
Canonical SMILES C([N+](=O)[O-])(Cl)(Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) LFHISGNCFUNFFM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/CCl3NO2/c2-1(3,4)5(6)7
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Insecticide, Nematicide
Substance group Unclassified
Minimum active substance purity 990 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - None declared
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Via vapour, exact mode of action is non-specific
CAS RN 76-06-2
EC number 200-930-9
CIPAC number 298
US EPA chemical code 081501
PubChem CID 6423
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 164.37
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) trichloro(nitro)methane
IUPAC name trichloronitromethane
CAS name trichloronitromethane
Other status information Potential groundwater contaminant; Marine Pollutant; Chemical subject to PIC regulations;
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 8B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Sitophilus oryzae
Physical state Colourless liquid
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Dewco-Lloyd
  • K&S Fumigation
Example products using this active
  • Chloropicrin Fumigant
  • K&S Chlorofume
  • Terr-O-gas
  • Pic-Brom
  • Telone
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Vapour releasing products that are usually applied with specialised injection equipment or hand-operatated equipment for small areas.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for chloropicrin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 10000 A5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 500000 A5 - Acetone -
500000 A5 - Ethanol -
500000 A5 - Xylene -
500000 A5 - Hexane -
Melting point (oC) Not applicable Q3 - freezes at -70 DegC -
Boiling point (oC) 114 A5 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 3.16 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P 2.5 A5 - @ 25 DegC Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.66 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 101325000 A5 Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.44 X 1002 A5 Volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 1.38 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 3.45 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 203.7nm = 1648, 274nm = 32; [Acidic solution: 204.4nm = 1512, 274.2nm = 28; [Basic solution: 275nm = 33 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 71.0 A5 at 20oC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 4.2 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 4.2 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 3.0 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 23.3 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU 2017 dossier Lab studies DT50 2.7-21.8 days, DT90 range 2.7-89.3 days, Soils=8; Field study DT50 0.48-5.6 days 2 soils. Other sources: DT50 1.0 day (DW3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 1.3 A5 Moderately fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable W4 -
Note Stable pH 5 to pH 9
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 0.66 A5 Mobile
Kfoc 60.5
1/n 0.91
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 0.414-1.15, Kfoc range 24.9-122 mL/g, 1/n range 0.68-1.08, Soils=4
pH sensitivity No

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
dichloronitromethane This metabolite may cause environmental pollution, click here for further information Soil   0.174   Major fraction; Relevant

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
chloromethane - Soil (Anaerobic) trace -
nitromethane - Soil (Anaerobic) 0.03 -
dichloro(methyl)hydroxylamine - Soil leachate - -
chloroform - Soil trace -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for chloropicrin

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) Low risk A5 Based on LogP < 3 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 250 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 8 A5 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 62.0 A5 Colinus virginianus High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 108 mg kg-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.0048 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.150 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0025 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.030 F3 Americamysis bahia High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.014 A5 Lemna minor Moderate
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.00011 A5 Raphidocelis subcapitata High
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 100 F4 Apis mellifera Low
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 12.2 A4 Inhalation Moderate
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 37.8 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect 100 A5 Folsomia candida, % Mortality [Dose: 3 l ha-1] -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 100 Mortality
Dose: 1350 kg ha-1
A5 Poecilus cupreus
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: Chronic effect [Dose: field rate]
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect [Dose: 5 x field rate]
Bacterial populations: No significant adverse effect
A5 -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for chloropicrin

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 250 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) - - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.044 A5 Rat (nose only) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.001 A2 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.001 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.024 A5 Rat, SF=3 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 100 A3 default -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Bystander exposure unlikely based on typical patterns of use
Minimal risk of dietary exposure
Occupational Risk of exposure acceptable under label recommendations for use for personal protection clothing and equipment
Risk of exposure by inhalation
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) 0.1 EU Dir 89/778/EC limit; Calc MAC=3 μg l-1; A5 -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A0; B0; C0; D0; E2

-

-

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Highly toxic
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H330, H335, H315, H319
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases T+ - Very toxic: R26
Xn - Harmful: R22
Xi - Irritant: R36/37/38
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S1/2, S36/37, S38, S45
WHO Classification FM - Fumigant, not classified
UN Number Usually 1580
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group I (great danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for chloropicrin

Language Name
English chloropicrin
French chloropicrine
German Chlorpikrin
Danish chloropicrin
Italian cloropicrina
Spanish cloropicrina
Greek -
Slovenian klorpikrin
Polish chloropikryna
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch chloorpikrine

Record last updated: Wednesday 03 April 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk