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GET ADDITIONAL DATA HERE!

aclonifen (Ref: AE F068300)
** aclonifene ** RPA 099795 ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Aclonifen is a herbicide that is currently not approved for EU use. It is not highly soluble in water but is in many organic solvents. It is non-volatile and is not expected to leach to groundwater. It is moderately persistence in soil systems and can be very persistent in aquatic systems under certain conditions. It has a low mammalian toxicity and may bioaccumulate. It is a recognised skin irritant. It is relatively non-toxic to birds and honeybees but more so to most aquatic organisms.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for aclonifen

Description: A nitrophenyl ether herbicide used for the pre-emergence control of grass and broad-leaved weeds

Example pests controlled: Buckwheat; Carpetweed; Cocklebur; Lady's thumb; Morning glory; Moonflower; Nighshade; Pigweed; Waterhelp; Foxtails

Example applications: Soybeans; Peanuts; Beans and peas: Rice

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: circa 1983

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Germany
Date inclusion expires 31/07/2022
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) Yes - two 'Persistent-Bioaccumulative-Toxic' criteria
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula C12H9ClN2O3
Canonical SMILES C1=CC=C(C=C1)OC2=C(C(=C(C=C2)[N+](=O)[O-])N)Cl
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) DDBMQDADIHOWIC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C12H9ClN2O3/c13-11-10(18-8-4-2-1-3-5-8)7-6-9(12(11)14)15(16)17/h1-7H,14H2
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide
Substance group Diphenyl ether
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities EU dossier - Phenol
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Systemic and selective. Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis.
CAS RN 74070-46-5
EC number 277-704-1
CIPAC number 498
US EPA chemical code -
PubChem CID 92389
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 264.66
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 2-chloro-6-nitro-3-phenoxyaniline
IUPAC name 2-chloro-6-nitro-3-phenoxyaniline
CAS name 2-chloro-6-nitro-3-phenoxybenzenamine
Other status information PAN listed Highly Hazardous Chemical
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) F3
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 13
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Yellow powder or crystals
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically -
Example products using this active
  • Bandur
  • Mikado
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a suspension concentrate that is mixed with water and applied as a spary.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for aclonifen

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 1.4 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 4800 A5 - n-Hexane -
442000 A5 - Toluene -
49200 A5 - Methanol -
730000 A5 - Acetone -
Melting point (oC) 81.2 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 297 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.34 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P 4.37 A5 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.46 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC -3.15 A5 -
Note: Very strong acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.016 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 3.03 X 10-03 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.26 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 7.36 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 238nm = 18987, 310nm = 8431, 390nm = 6143 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 72.0 A5 20 oC -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 117 W4 Persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 62.3 A5 Moderately persistent
DT50 (field) 80.4 A5 Moderately persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 364 A5 -
DT90 (field) 316 A5 -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU dossier lab studies DT50 range 29.5-93.6 days, DT90 range 107-740 days; field studies DT50 range 13-195 days, DT90 range 104-649 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 197 A5 Stable
Note Not a major route of degradation. Calculated values range 9-1040 days depending on sunlight levels and temp
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable between pH 5 and pH 9, 22-70 degC
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 14.3 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) 4.2 A5 Moderately fast

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 138.1 A5 Non-mobile
Kfoc 7126
1/n 0.922
Notes and range Kf range 58.5-265.3, Kfoc range 5318-10612 mL/g, 1/n range 0.878-1.003, Soils=3
pH sensitivity No

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
4-(3-amino-2-chloro-4-nitrophenoxy)phenol
(Ref: RPA 407074)
- Plant - -
3,4-diamino-2-chlorophenol
(Ref: RPA 407288)
- Plant - -
3-chloro-4-phenoxybenzene-1,2-diamine
(Ref: RPA 407291)
- Plant - -
3-amino-2-chloro-4-nitrophenol
(Ref: RPA 508285)
- Plant - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for aclonifen

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 2896 A5 Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) 2 -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) > 50 A5 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2000 A5 Colinus virginianus Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.67 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.005 A5 Pimephales promelas High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 1.2 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.016 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) 0.472 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) 32.0 A5 Chironomus riparius Moderate
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.006 A5 Lemna gibba High
Non-target plants 13.7 A5 Brassica napus
Vegetative vigour, ER50
as g/ha
-
25.7 A5 Brassica napus
Seedling emergence, ER50
as g/ha
-
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.47 A5 Navicula pelliculosa Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 100 A5 Low
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 150 A5 Eisenia foetida, corr Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 45 A5 Eisenia andrei, corr Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 2930 >, 48 hour
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 102 7 day, Mortality
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect [Dose: 15 kg ha-1, 28 days]
Carbon mineralisation: 8% Effect sand [Dose: 3 kg ha-1, 28 days]
Carbon mineralisation: 22% Effect loam [Dose: 15 kg ha-1, 28 days]
A5 -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for aclonifen

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 5000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 5.06 A5 Rat, 4 hr (nose only) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.07 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.07 A5 Rat, SF=100 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 2-10 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Risk of exposure to bystanders from spray drift, but acceptable risk level for proposed used
Very low risk of exposure via diet
Occupational Main risk from dermal absorption during preparation and mixing
Acceptable risk level for proposed uses
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) 0.1 EU Dir 89/778/EC limit; A5 -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A3; B3; C3; D0; E0

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues Possible kidney toxicant
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes No information available
IMDG Transport Code is usually 9
CLP classification 2013 Health: H317, H351
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S60, S61
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
UN Number Usually 3077
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group III (minor danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for aclonifen

Language Name
English aclonifen
French aclonifene
German Aclonifen
Danish aclonifen
Italian aclonifen
Spanish aclonifen
Greek -
Slovenian aklonifen
Polish aklonifen
Swedish aklonifen
Hungarian -
Dutch aclonifen

Record last updated: Tuesday 25 June 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk