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chloroxuron (Ref: C 1983)
** chloroxyphenidin ** chloroxyfenidim ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for chloroxuron

Description: An obsolete selective phenylurea herbicide once used to control annual grasses, mosses and broad-leaved weeds

Example pests controlled: Barnyardgrass; Nightshade; Carpetweed; Corn cockle; Dandelion; Goosegrass; Crabgrass; Ragweed; Puslane; Shepherd's purse; Pigweed; Velvetleaf

Example applications: Soybeans; Onions; Strawberries; Celery; Ornamentals; vegetables including onions, carrots, leeks, peas & beans

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Obsolete

Introduction & key dates: 1961, first reported

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Not applicable
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) -
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C15H15ClN2O2
Canonical SMILES CN(C)C(=O)NC1=CC=C(C=C1)OC2=CC=C(C=C2)Cl
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) IVUXTESCPZUGJC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C15H15ClN2O2/c1-18(2)15(19)17-12-5-9-14(10-6-12)20-13-7-3-11(16)4-8-13/h3-10H,1-2H3,(H,17,19)
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Herbicide
Substance group Dimethylurea
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor at the photosystem II receptor. Growth inhibition and chlorotic and necrotic effects on foliage
CAS RN 1982-47-4
EC number 217-843-7
CIPAC number 187
US EPA chemical code 025501
PubChem CID 16115
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 290.75
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) N'-[4-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenyl]-N,N-dimethylurea
IUPAC name 3-[4-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenyl]-1,1-dimethylurea
CAS name N'-[4-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenyl]-N,N-dimethylurea
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) C2
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) 7
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Solid
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Syngenta
  • Ciba Geigy AG
Example products using this active
  • Tenoran
  • Norex
  • Gesamoos
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as a wettable powder.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for chloroxuron

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 3.7 K4 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 44000 CA3 - Acetone -
106000 CA3 - Dichloromethane -
4000 CA3 - Toluene -
35000 CA3 - Toluene -
Melting point (oC) 151 Q3 -
Boiling point (oC) - - -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) - - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.51 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.4 K4 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity - - -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 2.30 X 10-04 K4 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 6.00 X 10-05 H4 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.98 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.96 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Medium
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 36 K4 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) 60 F3 Moderately persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note Literature states DT50 typically ranges from 30 to 60 days, 110 days silt loam aerobic conditions (CA3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 0.015 K4 Fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 2896 K4 Very persistent
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) 63 K4 Stable

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - H3 Slightly mobile
Koc 2820
Notes and range Best available data
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
N-(4-chlorophenoxy)-phenyl-N-methylurea Soil   -   Not assessed under 91/414 or 1107/2009
N-(4-chlorophenoxy)-phenylurea Soil   -   Not assessed under 91/414 or 1107/2009
4-chlorophenoxy-aniline Soil   -   Not assessed under 91/414 or 1107/2009


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for chloroxuron

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 105 Q2 Estimated Threshold for concern
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 3700 V3 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 2000 F3 Anas platyrhynchos Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 100 F4 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 2.95 F4 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.016 K3 Unknown species Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) 16 K4 Moderate
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms Acute LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg-1) - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for chloroxuron

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 3700 V3 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) - - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public -
Occupational Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation of dusts and dermal contact
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A0; B0; C0; D0; E0

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Harmful by ingestion and inhalation
May be harmful by skin contact
Under certain conditions may form carcinogenic dimethylnitrosamine
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases
CLP classification 2013 Health: H332
Environment: H400
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R20, R22
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases -
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for chloroxuron

Language Name
English chloroxuron
French chloroxuron
German Chloroxuron
Danish chloroxuron
Italian cloroxuron
Spanish cloroxuron
Greek -
Slovenian kloroksuron
Polish chloroksuron
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch chloroxuron

Record last updated: Friday 28 June 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk