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Sulfuryl fluoride
Last updated: 15/03/2021
(Also known as: sulfuryl difluoride; sulfur difluoride dioxide ; sulfuric oxyfluoride )

SUMMARY
Sulfuryl fluoride is used as an alternative to methyl bromide and is approved for use within the EU subject to national regulation. It is highly soluble in water and most organic solvents. It is extremely volatile. It is moderately toxic to humans and there are concerns that it may be a reproduction/fertility toxicant. It is modertaely toxic to honey bees, aquatic fauna and flora.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
Drainflow: Very mobile
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Ecotoxicity
Moderate alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Daphnia acute ecotoxicity: Moderate; Bees acute contact ecotoxicity: Moderate
Warning:
Significant data are missing
Human health
High alert:
Reproduction/development effects
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
Fumigant gas used as a replacement for methyl bromide for termite treatment in buildings and on merchantable timber. Also used as a general post harvest insect control on a range of crops.
Example pests controlled
Codling moth; Granary weevil; Flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella); Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella); Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum); Confused flour beetle (Tribolium confisum); Warehouse beetle (Trogoderma variabile); Drywood termites; Wood-infesting beetles; Spiders
Example applications
Empy grain storage areas; Structures; Wood products
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
2004, USA first registered as a food fumigant
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
31/10/2026
UK LERAP status
None
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Austria/Ireland
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
31/10/2023
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
No
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
             
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
         
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
             
Also used in
Also used in
USA, Switzerland
Chemical structure
Isomerism
None
Chemical formula
F₂O₂S
Canonical SMILES
O=S(=O)(F)F
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
OBTWBSRJZRCYQV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/F2O2S/c1-5(2,3)4
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Fungicide, Nematicide, Rodenticide, Other substance
Other constituent type
Bactericide, Wood preservative
Substance group
Inorganic compound
Minimum active substance purity
998 g kg⁻¹
Known relevant impurities
EU dossier - none declared
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic with complex mode of action that prevents stored fats to be utilised leading to insufficent energy available for survival
CAS RN
2699-79-8
EC number
220-281-5
CIPAC number
-
US EPA chemical code
078003
PubChem CID
17607
Molecular mass
102.06
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
-
IUPAC name
sulfuryl fluoride
CAS name
sulfuryl fluoride
Other status information
Ozone depletor, Greenhouse gas, Marine pollutant, Considered to add to fluoride contamination of fresh produce
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Colourless, odourless gas
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Dow
  • Drexel Chemical Co.
Example products using this active
  • Vikane
  • Zyther
  • Profume
Formulation and application details
Used as a fumigant gas
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
1040
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
22000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
n-Heptane
-
33000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Methanol
-
71000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Acetone
-
25000
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Xylene
-
Melting point (°C)
-137
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Boiling point (°C)
-54
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Degradation point (°C)
400
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Flashpoint (°C)
Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.38 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P
0.14
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
0.00418
E4 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
4 = Verified data
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
1.6 X 1009
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.6 X 1005
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
276nm = 37, 290nm = 25, No UV absorbance above 290nm
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
68.0
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
at 20°C 90% soln
-
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
- - -
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Minimal data available. Exposure to soil expected to be minimal due to usage pattern.
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
-
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Note
Negligible
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
0.25
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Non-persistent
Note
DT₅₀ 4 mins at pH 9, 5 days at pH 2.
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Very mobile
Koc
6
Notes and range
Literature values range between 0 and 50 mL g⁻¹
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
- - -
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
Cannot be calculated - -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
- - -
Potential for loss via drain flow
- - -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
fluorosulfonic acid - Soil - -
hydrofluoric acid - Soil - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
Low risk
A3 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Based on LogP < 3
Low risk
CT₅₀ (days)
- -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
100
E4 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.89
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Danio rerio
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.62
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.58
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
6.5
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
100
E4 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
9599
E4 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
4 = Verified data
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 991
E4 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
4 = Verified data
Rat 4 hr
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.01
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2005 SF=100
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.7
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2005 SF = 100
-
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.3
F5 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
JMPR 2005 SF = 100
-
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
Main risks arise usually after inhalational exposure
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
XNo, known not to cause a problem
A2 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
2 = Mixed/ambiguous results
;
B3 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
C3 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
?Possibly, status not identified
No data found  
General human health issues
Prolonged exposure may cause pulmonary edema, nausea and abdominal pain
Possible kidney, CNS, blood and bone toxicant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Liquid form may cause frost bite
Emits toxic fumes when heated to decomposition
Not explosive or oxidising
IMDG Transport Code is usually 2.3
CLP classification 2013
Health, H331, H373
Environment: H400
EC Risk Classification
T - Toxic: R23, R48/20
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S45, S60, S61, S63
WHO Classification
NL (Not listed)
UN Number
Usually 2191
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
sulfuryl fluoride
French
fluorure de sulfuryle
German
-
Danish
-
Italian
fluoro de sulfurilo
Spanish
-
Greek
-
Polish
-
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
-

Record last updated: 15/03/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242