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alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (Ref: ENT 9232)
** alpha-HCH ** alpha-benzenehexachloride ** alpha-BHC ** alpha-lindane ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane is an insecticide that is not generally approved for use in the developed world. It is moderately toxic to mammals and considered to be carcinogenic. Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane has a low aqueous solubility and is highly volatile. It is moderately persistent is soil and slightly mobile. It is moderately toxic to birds and aquatic organisims.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane

Description: Historically an insecticide and a component of the mixed isomer product but now only produced as a byproduct of lindane production. It is also a lindane impurity that has some insecticidal properties

Example pests controlled: Soil-dwelling and plant eating insects

Example applications: Fruit and vegetable crops; Forestry; Public health applications

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Unknown

Introduction & key dates: -

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Not applicable
Date inclusion expires Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) Not applicable
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C6H6Cl6
Canonical SMILES -
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) JLYXXMFPNIAWKQ-LKPKBOIGSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C6H6Cl6/c7-1-2(8)4(10)6(12)5(11)3(1)9/h1-6H/t1-,2-,3-,4-,5+,6+/m0/s1
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Insecticide, Other substance
Other constituent type Impurity
Substance group Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Not applicable
CAS RN 319-84-6
EC number 206-270-8
CIPAC number -
US EPA chemical code -
PubChem CID 727
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 290.83
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) -
IUPAC name -
CAS name α-hexachlorocyclohexane
Other status information POP; Water pollutant; Marine pollutant; Pan Bad Actor Chemical; PIC; Possible groundwater pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state White to beige coloured crystalline powder
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically -
Example products using this active -
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details -


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 2.0 V3 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 18000 CA3 - Ether -
Melting point (oC) 159 E3 -
Boiling point (oC) 288 E3 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) - - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 6.61 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P 3.82 E3 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.87 E3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 5.99 E3 Moderately volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) - - -
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 1.62 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 4.93 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 No absorption > 290nm E3 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 175 R3 Persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note DT50 sandy loam 55 days in subtropical conditions (R2), temperate climate data suggests 150-200 days (R3)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value - - -
Note Not thought to be a major degradation route
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value - - -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - R3 Slightly mobile
Koc 1888
Notes and range Literature gives Koc range 1780-1995 mL/g
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
pentachlorocyclohexane - Soil (Aerobic) - -
tetrachlorobenzene - Soil (Aerobic) - -
trichlorobenzene - Soil (Aerobic) - -
dichlorobenzene - Soil (Aerobic) - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) - - -
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 177 V3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) > 0.820 F4 Danio rerio Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.370 F4 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.1 P2 Daphnia magna, 25 day EC50 Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 10 F4 Chlorella pyrenoidosa Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms Acute LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg-1) - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 177 V3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) - - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List I - -
Exposure Routes Public May be absorbed through the skin
Occupational May be absorbed through the skin
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A0; B0; C0; D0; E0

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues Exposure may cause dyspnoea, anorexia, tremors, convulsions and cramps
Liver, kidney and heart toxicant
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Flammable
CLP classification 2013 -
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Carcinogen category 3: R40
T - Toxic: R52, Xn - Harmful: R25
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50/53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S22, S36/37, S45, S60, S61
WHO Classification NL - Not listed
UN Number 1230
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks Packaging Group II (medium danger)


TRANSLATIONS

for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane

Language Name
English alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane
French -
German alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexan
Danish -
Italian -
Spanish -
Greek -
Slovenian -
Polish -
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch -

Record last updated: Monday 09 December 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk