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Alpha-endosulfan
Last updated: 19/05/2021
(Also known as: endosulfan I)

SUMMARY
Alpha-endosulfan is an insecticide that is not generally approved for use in the developed world. It has some potential for bio-concentration, highly toxic to mammals and a neurotoxin. Alpha-endosulfan has a low aqueous solubility and moderately. It is moderately persistent in the soil but has a low mobility. It is moderately toxic to birds and most aquatic species.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
High alert:
Potential for particle bound transport: High
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish acute ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Mammals acute toxicity: High; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An insecticide and acaricide used to control sucking, chewing and boring insects
Example pests controlled
Mites; Ticks; Tstetse fly; Colorado beetle; Aphids; White flies; Leaf hoppers
Example applications
Cotton; Potatoes; Tomatoes; Apples
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
-
Introduction & key dates
circa 1956
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Not applicable
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Not applicable
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
No
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Additional information
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
This is one of two isomers, endo and exo (also known as I and II)
Chemical formula
C₉H₆Cl₆O₃S
Canonical SMILES
C1C2C(COS(=O)O1)C3(C(=C(C2(C3(Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
C1[C@@H]2[C@H](COS(=O)O1)[C@@]3(C(=C([C@]2(C3(Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl)Cl
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
RDYMFSUJUZBWLH-AZVNHNRSSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C9H6Cl6O3S/c10-5-6(11)8(13)4-2-18-19(16)17-1-3(4)7(5,12)9(8,14)15/h3-4H,1-2H2
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
enosulfan Unstated isomer
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Acaricide
Substance group
Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic with contact and stomach action, acts as a non-competitive GABA antagonist
CAS RN
959-98-8
EC number
-
CIPAC number
89
US EPA chemical code
-
PubChem CID
12309460
Molecular mass
406.93
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
an equimolar mixture of 2 asymmetric, twisted-chair conformers of (5aR,6S,9R,9aS)-6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepine 3-oxide
IUPAC name
equimolar mixture of 2 asymmetric, conformers of (5aR,6S,9R,9aS)-6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepine 3-oxide
CAS name
(3α,5αβ,6α,9α,9αβ)-6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5α,6,9,9α-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepin 3-oxide
Other status information
POP candidate; OSPAR pfa/soc; WFD priority substance; Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
EU Directive 2008/105/EC EQS surface waters: annual average 0.005 µg l⁻¹; max measured 0.01 µg l⁻¹
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
2A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
None identified
Physical state
Brown crystals
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Bayer CropScience
Example products using this active
-
Formulation and application details
-
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.32
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
200000
C3 C = AGRITOX (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethyl acetate
-
6500
C3 C = AGRITOX (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
24000
C3 C = AGRITOX (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Hexane
-
200000
C3 C = AGRITOX (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Toluene
-
Melting point (°C)
109.2
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
401.28
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
5.50 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.74
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
- - -
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
8.3
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
1.48
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
50
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
39
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
86
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
1.5
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published data RL₅₀ range 0.7-2.2 days, 4 field grown crops inc. peppers & tomatoes, various matrices, n=6
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
1.4
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published data RL₅₀ range 0.2-2.7 days, 3 field grown crops inc. peppers & tea, various matrices, n=4
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
20
C3 C = AGRITOX (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
11500
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
-0.12 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g⁻¹ are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Non-mobile Calculated -
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
endosulfan sulfate
Soil - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
2755
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Whole fish
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
38
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
111
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anas platyrhynchos
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.002
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.44
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.24
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Americamysis bahia
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.1
F2 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Chironomus riparius 2 day
Moderate
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
2.15
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Anabaena doliolum
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
7.81
C3 C = AGRITOX (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
14
C3 C = AGRITOX (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Eisenia foetida
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
38
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
High
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
500
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.013
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
Can be absorbed following ingestion, inhalation and skin contact
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Great Britain
GB MRL Register 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
No data found No data found No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
No data found No data found  
General human health issues
Mutagenic potential
Highly toxic
Endocrine toxicant
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Corrosive
CLP classification 2013
-
EC Risk Classification
T+ - Very toxic: R26/28
Xn - Harmful: R21
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S1/2, S28, S36/37, S45, S60, S61, S63
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
alpha-endosulfan
French
alphaendosulfan
German
alpha-Endosulfan
Danish
alpha-endosulfan
Italian
alfaendosulfan
Spanish
alfaendosulfan
Greek
alfa endosulphan
Polish
alfa-endosulfan
Swedish
-
Hungarian
alpha endoszulfan
Dutch
alfa-endosulfan

Record last updated: 19/05/2021
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242