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copper II hydroxide
** cupric hydroxide ** copper dihydroxide ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

A widely used copper fungicide that is approved for use in many countries including at EU level. It has a low aqueous solubility and a low volatility. As a heavy metal, copper itself will not degrade in the environment. It is moderately toxic to mammals and most biodiversity.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for copper II hydroxide

Description: Inorganic copper compound used to protect against a number of fungal and bacterial diseases

Example pests controlled: Wide range of fungal pathogens including mildews and leaf spots

Example applications: Fruit including plums, citrus, litchi, mango, apples, pears, grapes; Beans, Peppers, Brassicas, Lettuce, Onions, Curcubits; Tomatoes

Efficacy & activity: Copper based products have been shown to be affective against many fungal pathogens in field trials.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1968, USA

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur France/Germany
Date inclusion expires 30/01/2019
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) Yes - two 'Persistent-Bioaccumulative-Toxic' criteria
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism None
Chemical formula H2O2Cu
Canonical SMILES [Cu+2].[OH-].[OH-]
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) JJLJMEJHUUYSSY-UHFFFAOYSA-L
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/Cu.2H2O/h;2*1H2/q+2;;/p-2/rCuH2O2/c2-1-3/h2-3H
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Fungicide, Bactericide
Substance group Inorganic compound
Minimum active substance purity > 583 g/Kg total copper
Known relevant impurities EU 2018 dossier: May contain heavy metals including Pb, Cd, As, Ni, CO, Sb & Hg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Absorbed copper disrupts the enzyme systems of the pathogens. Multi-site activity.
CAS RN 20427-59-2
EC number 243-815-9
CIPAC number 44.305
US EPA chemical code -
PubChem CID 30154
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 97.56
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) copper(II) hydroxide
IUPAC name copper(II) hydroxide
CAS name copper hydroxide
Other status information PAN listed Highly Hazardous Chemical
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) M1/2
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Blue-green powdery solid
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically -
Example products using this active -
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details -


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for copper II hydroxide

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.506 A5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.007 A5 - Heptane -
0.016 A5 - p-Xylene -
0.0016 A5 - Isopropanol -
0.005 A5 - Acetone -
Melting point (oC) Decomposes before melting A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 229 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.75 X 1000 Calculated -
Log P 0.44 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity - - -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.000001 C4 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) - - -
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index -0.32 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 5.35 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g-1 are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Acidic soln: 205nm=3605, 250nm=185, 800nm=13, 290nm=32, 295nm=24 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) Not applicable A5 -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability Not biodegradable
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 10000 A2 Very persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT50 (field) 2600 F3 Very persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note EU 2018 dossier: No degradation expected
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note -
Water-sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - F3 Non-mobile
Koc 12000
Notes and range Other data source: Koc 4000-20000 mL/g (US3)
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for copper II hydroxide

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) Low risk A5 Based on LogP < 3 Low potential
CT50 (days) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 489 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) - - -
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 223 A5 Colinus virginianus, as copper Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.017 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.027 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.038 A5 Daphnia magna High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.03 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.009 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata High
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 44.46 A5 Apis mellifera Moderate
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) 49.0 A5 Apis mellifera Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 677 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) < 15 A5 Eisenia foetida, as Cu, 56 days Moderate
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 50 As Cu, Mortality
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect - - -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 12.5 kg Cu/ha
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 0.003 A5 -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for copper II hydroxide

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 489 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2000 A5 Rat -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.45 A5 Rat, 4 hr (whole body) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.15 A5 Dog, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.072 A5 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 1-9 A5 concentration dependent -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List II - -
Exposure Routes Public Negligible risk to bystanders for proposed uses
Occupational Acceptable risk to operators and workers for proposed uses with PPE/PPC
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards Statutory EU standard for total copper in drinking water: 2 mg/L
Non-statutory WHO guideline for total copper in drinking water: 2 mg/L
UK EA QS database, 2018 -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) 2000 EU Dir 89/778/EC limit as Cu, A5 -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A0; B0; C0; D0; E3

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues Potential heavy metal poisoning
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Prevent generation of dust
Corrosive
Not explosive or oxidising
CLP classification 2013 Health: H301, H332
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases T - Toxic: R23
Xn - Harmful: R22, R41
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50-53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S26, S39, S45, S57, S60, S61, S63
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for copper II hydroxide

Language Name
English copper II hydroxide
French hydroxyde de cuivre
German Kupferhydroxid
Danish kobberhydroxid
Italian idrossido di rame
Spanish hidróxido de cobre
Greek -
Slovenian bakrov II hidroksid
Polish wodorotlenek miedzi (II)
Swedish kopparhydroxid
Hungarian réz(II)-hidroxid
Dutch -

Record last updated: Thursday 23 August 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk