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Cyanazine
Last updated: 22/12/2020
(Also known as: WL 19805; DW 3418)

SUMMARY
Cyanazine is a triazine herbicide approved for use in the EU and many other countries. It is moderately soluble in water and many organic solvents and it is relatively volatile. It is not persistent in soil systems but can often be persistent in water. It is moderately toxic to mammals and may have serious adverse health effects if ingested as it is a neurotoxin, a suspected endocrine disrupter and a development/reproduction toxin. Cyanazine is moderately toxic to most fauna and flora.
Data alerts

The following alerts are based on the data in the tables below. An absence of an alert does not imply the substance has no implications for human health, biodiversity or the environment but just that we do not have the data to form a judgement.

Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Human health
Environmental fate
Moderate alert:
GUS: Transition state; Drainflow: Moderately mobile
Ecotoxicity
High alert:
Fish chronic ecotoxicity: High
Human health
High alert:
Endocrine distrupter; Reproduction/development effects; Neurotoxicant
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
A pre-emergence herbicide used for general weed control includings grasses and broad-leaved weeds in a range of crops
Example pests controlled
Nightshade; Bindweed; Chickweed; Clover; Crowsfoot; Docks; Plantain; Sorrel; Sowthistle; Stinging nettle; Deadnettle
Example applications
Vegetables including peas, chickpeas, beans, lentils, onions; Potatoes; Sweetcorn
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
circa 1967
UK regulatory status
UK COPR regulatory status
Not approved
Date COPR inclusion expires
Expired
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Regulation 1107/2009 status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Sweden
Date EC 1107/2009 inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) under EC 1107/2009 in the following EU Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia
Chemical structure
Isomerism
-
Chemical formula
C₉H₁₃ClN₆
Canonical SMILES
CCNC1=NC(=NC(=N1)Cl)NC(C)(C)C#N
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
MZZBPDKVEFVLFF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C9H13ClN6/c1-4-12-7-13-6(10)14-8(15-7)16-9(2,3)5-11/h4H2,1-3H3,(H2,12,13,14,15,16)
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
cyanazine -
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance group
Triazine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, systemic with contact and residual action. Inhibits photosynthesis (photosystem II).
CAS RN
21725-46-2
EC number
244-544-9
CIPAC number
230
US EPA chemical code
100101
PubChem CID
30773
Molecular mass
240.69
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
2-{[4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino}-2-methylpropanenitrile
IUPAC name
2-(4-chloro-6-ethylamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)-2-methylpropiononitrile
CAS name
2-((4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino)-2-methylpropanenitrile
Other status information
Potential groundwater contaminant; Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
C1
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
5
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Kochia scoparia
Physical state
White crystals
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Fortrol
  • Bladex
  • Payze
  • Blanchol
Example products using this active
  • Syngenta
  • Shell Chemical Co
  • DuPont
  • BASF
Formulation and application details
Supplied in a wide range of formulations including suspension concentrates, wettable powders, granules & water-dispersible powders
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
171
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
195000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
45000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
15000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Benzene
-
15000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Hexane
-
Melting point (°C)
168
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
- - -
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.26 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P
2.1
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.29
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
12.9
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
-
Very weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.000213
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
6.60 X 10-06
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
16
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
16
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Non-persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other sources: DT₅₀ 12-25 days (R3)
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
4.0
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Various grasses, n=3
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
Stable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
Stable
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Stable
Note
Stable pH 5 to pH 9, hydrolysed by strong acids and alkalis
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
84
K4 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
4 = Verified data
Moderately fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
G3 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately mobile
Koc
190
Notes and range
Other sources: 30-427 mL g⁻¹ (R3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Fate indices
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
GUS leaching potential index
2.07 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
6.25 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Potential for loss via drain flow
Moderately mobile Calculated -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
157
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
(Other literature Log BCF range 2.3-4.1 (R3))
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
288
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
-
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
-
(ppm diet)
12 -
Mammals - Chronic 21d NOAEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
400
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Phasianidae
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Birds - Chronic 21d NOEL (mg kg⁻¹ bw d⁻¹)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
10
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rasbora heteromorpha
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.08
P3 P = Other governments and regulators
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss 10 day
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
49
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
0.051
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lemna gibba
Moderate
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.2
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Scenedesmus quadricauda
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.009
J4 J = Pesticide Action Network database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Green algae
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
100
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
600
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
288
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
2.46
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
-
Occupational
-
MRLs
European
EU MRL pesticide database 
Notes
-
Drinking Water Standards
Non-statutory WHO drinking water guideline 0.0006 mg l⁻¹
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
UK EA QS database 2018
-
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
Yes, known to cause a problem
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
Yes, known to cause a problem
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
No data found No data found  
General human health issues
USEPA - possible human carcinogen
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Prevent generation of spray mists
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S37, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
cyanazine
French
cyanazine
German
Cyanazin
Danish
cyanazin
Italian
cianazina
Spanish
cianazina
Greek
cyanazine
Polish
cyjanazyna
Swedish
cyanazin
Hungarian
cianazin
Dutch
cyanazin

Record last updated: 22/12/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242