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daminozide
** SADH ** DMASA ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Daminozide is a plant growth regulator that has regulatory approval for use in the EU and is also used in Australia and USA. It is highly soluble in water and volatile. Based on its chemical properties it is not expected to leach to groundwater. Data suggests it is not persistent in soil systems but can be persistent in some water systems. It is relatively non-toxic to mammals but has a high potential for bioaccumulation. Daminozide is a recognised irritant. It has a moderate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and earthworms but is less harmful to birds, fish and honeybees.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for daminozide

Description: A hydrazide plant growth regulator for use in certain ornamentals in greenhouses, shade-houses and nurseries

Example pests controlled: Growth - internode elongation to produce more compact plants

Example applications: Ornamentals including azealeas, bedding plants and plugs, chrysanthemums, foliage plants, hydrangers; Tree fruit including peaches, cherries, prunes, pears

Efficacy & activity: Efficiacy supported by field trials that demonstrate it produces more robust plants.

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1965

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Czech Republic/Hungary
Date inclusion expires 31/10/2020
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) No
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism -
Chemical formula C6H12N2O3
Canonical SMILES CN(C)NC(=O)CCC(=O)O
Isomeric SMILES No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) NOQGZXFMHARMLW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C6H12N2O3/c1-8(2)7-5(9)3-4-6(10)11/h3-4H2,1-2H3,(H,7,9)(H,10,11)
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Plant growth regulator
Substance group Unclassified
Minimum active substance purity 990 g/kg
Known relevant impurities EU 2018 dossier - N-nitrosodimethylamine < 2.0 mg/kg; 1,1-dimethylhydrazide < 30 mg/kg
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Absorbed via leaves, translocates throughout plant.
CAS RN 1596-84-5
EC number 216-485-9
CIPAC number 330
US EPA chemical code 035101
PubChem CID 15331
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 160.17
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 4-(2,2-dimethylhydrazinyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid
IUPAC name N-(dimethylamino)succinamic acid
CAS name butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide)
Other status information -
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance -
Physical state Off-white crystalline solid
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Certis
  • Fine
  • Chemtura Corp
  • Uniroyal
Example products using this active
  • B-Nine SG
  • Dazide Enhance
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Often supplied as water soluble granules .


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for daminozide

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 128000 A5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 270 A5 - Ethyl acetate -
1610 A5 - Acetone -
20 A5 - n-Hexane -
48000 A5 - Methanol -
Melting point (oC) 153 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) Decomposes before boiling A5 -
Degradation point (oC) 142 A5 -
Flashpoint (oC) Not expected to self ignite; Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.95 X 10-02 Calculated -
Log P -1.53 A5 Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.3 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC 4.68 A5 -
Note: Weak acid
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 1.5 X 10-03 A5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 1.0 X 10-09 A5 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index -2.37 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 1.43 X 10-04 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 neutral pH: 191nm=6520
Acidic pH: 198nm=951
Basic pH: 192nm=6966
A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 69.8 A5 at 25 degC, 0.1% solution. -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability Considered to be readily biodegradable
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 0.12 Click here to see a warning relating to modelling and this active substance A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 0.12 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 0.63 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint 0.12 A5 geometric mean -
Note EU 2018 dossier lab studies DT50 (normalised) range 0.06-0.23 days, DT90 (measured) range 0.35-1.21 days, Soils=4; Other sources: DT50 21 days (US3), 21 days (DW4)
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value - - -
Note -
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 149 A5 Stable
Note Not an important degradation route
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable A5 -
Note Stable pH 5 to pH 9
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 0.91 A5 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) No data A5 -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 0.25 A5 Mobile
Kfoc 26.6
1/n 1.27
Notes and range EU 2018 dossier Kf range 0.096-0.642 mL/g, Kfoc range 18.4-46.5 mL/g,, 1/N RANGE 1.107-1,368, Soils=4
pH sensitivity No

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
Unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine
Note: Contaminant and metabolite
UDMH Animal - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for daminozide

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) Low risk A5 Based on LogP < 3 Low potential
CT50 (days) A5 Onion, Ryegrass, Wheat, Corn, Sugar beet, OSR -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 80.5 A5 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) > 2250 A5 Anas platyrhynchos Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) > 10000 mg kg feed-1 A3 Unknown species -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 64 A5 Cyprinus carpio Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 1.7 A5 Pimephales promelas, 33d Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 75.5 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) > 1.7 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 334 A3 Unknown species Low
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) > 127 A4 Lemna gibba, 7 day NOEC Low
Non-target plants > 7.5 A5 Oat, Barley, Carrot, Radish, Cucumber, Bean
Vegetative vigour, ER50
as kg/ha
-
> 13.0 - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) > 100 A5 Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Low
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 200 A5 Apis mellifera Low
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 200 A5 Apis mellifera Low
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) > 1000 A5 Eisenia foetida Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) 684 A5 Eisenia foetida Low
Other soil macro-organisms Acute LC50 (mg kg-1) - - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg-1) - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 8.5 >
A5 Typhlodromus pyri
-
% Effect 52.0 Total affect
A5 Typhlodromus pyri, adult
-
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 8.5 >
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi
-
% Effect 12.5 Total effect
A5 Aphidius rhopalosiphi, adult
-
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
Carbon mineralisation: No significant adverse effect
A5
Dose: 20 kg formulation ha-1; 100 days
-
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for daminozide

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) > 5000 A5 Rat Low
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 5000 A5 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) > 2.1 A5 Rat, 4 hr (nose only) -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.25 A5 Rat, SF=200 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) None allocated A5 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0..009 A5 Rat, SF=200 -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 0.2-1.9 A5 concentration dependant -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Routes Public Acceptable risks for bystanders
Occupational Acceptable risks for operators and otherworkers
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Genotoxic Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

A3; B0; C0; D0; E3

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

-

General human health issues USEPA - probable human carcinogen; EFSA Carc. IB
Key: Genotoxicity
A: Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
B: DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
C: Gene mutation (EFSA database)
D: Genome mutation (EFSA database)
E: Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0: No data
1: Positive
2: Mixed/ambiguous results
3: Negative
Key: Other
: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes Not explosive or an oxidiser
CLP classification 2013 Health: H315, H319
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases -
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases -
WHO Classification U - Unlikely to present an acute hazard
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for daminozide

Language Name
English daminozide
French daminozide
German Daminozid
Danish daminozide
Italian daminozide
Spanish daminozida
Greek -
Slovenian daminozid
Polish daminozyd
Swedish daminozid
Hungarian daminozide
Dutch -

Record last updated: Tuesday 05 November 2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk