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Di-allate (Ref: CP 15)
Last updated: 26/11/2019
(Also known as: diallate)

SUMMARY
Di-allate is a herbicide that no longer has approval for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility but is miscible with many organic solvents. It is volatile and expected to be moderately persistent in soil systems. Di-allate is moderately toxic to mammals, carcinogenic and a recognised irritant. It is moderately toxic to fish but little data is available regarding its toxicity to other species.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An obsolete pre-emergence herbicide used to control wild oats and other grass weeds
Example pests controlled
Wild oats; Blackgrass; Foxtails; Wild millet
Example applications
Alfalfa; Barley; Corn; Flax; Soybean; Lentils; Peas; Potatoes; Sugarbeet;
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Obsolete
Introduction & key dates
1959, first reported
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Not applicable
Date inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
-
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Geometric isomers Z & E
Chemical formula
C₁0H₁₇Cl₂NOS
Canonical SMILES
CC(C)N(C(C)C)C(=O)SCC(=CCl)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
CC(C)N(C(C)C)C(=O)SC/C(=C/Cl)/Cl
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
SPANOECCGNXGNR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C10H17Cl2NOS/c1-7(2)13(8(3)4)10(14)15-6-9(12)5-11/h5,7-8H,6H2,1-4H3/b9-5-
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Herbicide
Substance group
Thiocarbamate
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Selective, inhibits lipid metabolism and thus the development of seedling shoots and roots
CAS RN
2303-16-4
EC number
218-961-1
CIPAC number
96
US EPA chemical code
078801
PubChem CID
5284376
Molecular mass
270.2
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
S-[(2E)-2,3-dichloroprop-2-en-1-yl] di(propan-2-yl)carbamothioate
IUPAC name
S-(EZ)-2,3-dichloroallyl diisopropyl(thiocarbamate)
CAS name
S-(2,3-dichloro-2-propenyl) bis(1-methylethyl)carbamothioate
Other status information
Marine Pollutant
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
N
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
-
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
Not applicable
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
-
Physical state
Amber coloured liquid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Avadex
  • Pyradex
Example products using this active
  • Monsanto
  • BASF
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details
Usually formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate or as granules
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
14
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethyl acetate
-
Miscible
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Xylene
-
Melting point (°C)
25
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Boiling point (°C)
97
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
- - -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
1.95 X 1003 Calculated -
Log P
3.29
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.18
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C
20
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Highly volatile
Henry's law constant at 25 °C
3.86 X 10-01
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Moderately volatile
GUS leaching potential index
1.92 Calculated Transition state
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
6.53 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
Low Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
30
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
30
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Other literature data: Persistent DT₅₀ 10-90 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
- - -
Note
-
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
500
Notes and range
-
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
750
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Estimated
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
395
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 8.2
F3 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rasbora heteromorpha
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
395
V3 V = ChemID online databases / IPCS INCHEM (ChemID; IPCS INCHEM )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
Occupational
Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
Yes, known to cause a problem
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E0 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
0 = No data
No data found
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
?Possibly, status not identified
?Possibly, status not identified
?Possibly, status not identified
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Exposure may cause irritability, hyperactivity and mild cardiac changes
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H351
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Carcinogen category 3: R40
Xn - Harmful: R22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S25, S36/37, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
di-allate
French
diallate
German
Diallat
Danish
diallat
Italian
diallate
Spanish
diallate; dialato
Greek
di-allate
Polish
dialat
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
diallaat

Record last updated: 26/11/2019
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242