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Allethrin (Ref: FMC 249)
Last updated: 22/05/2018
(Also known as: palléthrine; S-bioallethrin; toluen-disocianato; esdepallethrine; d-allethrolone chrysanthemumate)

SUMMARY
Allethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide mostly used in amenity and domestic situations but it is not approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, is volatile and, based on its chemical properties, would not be expected to leach to groundwater. It tends to be moderately persistent in most soil systems. Allethrin is moderately toxic to mammals and a recognised irrirtant. Whilst it is not highly toxic to birds it is moderately toxic to fish, honey bees and earthworms.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An insecticide used almost exclusively in domestic situation for the control of mainly flying insect pests
Example pests controlled
Mosquitoes; Domestic flies; Wasps; Ants
Example applications
Domestic situations
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1949, first introduced; circa 1954, Japan
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
-
Date inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
-
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia, USA
Chemical structure
Isomerism
A chiral molecule. Allethrin is a isomeric mixture of 8 stereoisomers.
Chemical formula
C₁₉H₂₆O₃
Canonical SMILES
CC1=C(C(=O)CC1OC(=O)C2C(C2(C)C)C=C(C)C)CC=C
Isomeric SMILES
No data
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
ZCVAOQKBXKSDMS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C19H26O3/c1-7-8-13-12(4)16(10-15(13)20)22-18(21)17-14(9-11(2)3)19(17,5)6/h7,9,14,16-17H,1,8,10H2,2-6H3
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
General status
Pesticide type
Insecticide, Veterinary substance
Substance group
Pyrethroid
Minimum active substance purity
93%
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Stomach and respiratory action, non-systemic, paralyses insects before killing them.
CAS RN
584-79-2
EC number
209-542-4
CIPAC number
267
US EPA chemical code
004001/004003
PubChem CID
11442
Molecular mass
302.41
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
(1E)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(prop-2-en-1-yl)cyclopent-2-en-1-yl (1?,3?)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)cyclopropane-1-carboxylate
IUPAC name
(RS)-3-allyl-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis-trans-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate
CAS name
2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propenyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-yl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate
Other status information
-
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
3
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Blattella germanica
Physical state
Viscous amber liquid
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Alleviate
  • Pyresin
  • Pynamin
  • Exthrin
Example products using this active
  • Farnham Co
  • American Cyanamid Co.
  • Sumitomo
  • Fairfield
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.0001
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
Miscible
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
Miscible
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Ethanol
-
655000
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
Hexane
-
Melting point (°C)
- - -
Boiling point (°C)
281.5
E3 E = Manufacturers safety data sheets
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
87
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
9.12 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.96
P4 P = Other governments and regulators
4 = Verified data
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.01
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.78
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
at 25°C
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
6.20 X 10-07
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index
1.52 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
4.11 X 10-02 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
60
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
- - -
Note
-
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Decomposes rapidly in UV light
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
-
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Note
Hydrolysis occurs only under alkaline conditions
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
DW3 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slightly mobile
Koc
1400
Notes and range
Other sources: 9500 mL g⁻¹ (CB2)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
200
R3 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
3 = Unverified data of known source
Threshold for concern
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
685
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
(ppm diet)
- -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 2030
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Colinus virginianus
Low
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 19
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 0.021
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Daphnia magna
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 3.4
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Moderate
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
> 1000
Q3 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Unknown species
Low
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
- - -
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
Intermediate (class II) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
685
G4 G = Extension Toxicology network database EXTOXNET (click here )
4 = Verified data
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2660
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
> 3.88
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
- - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
Occupational
Exposure may occur via skin contact or inhalation - PPE/PPC advised
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A0 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
B0 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
C0 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E2 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
2 = Mixed/ambiguous results
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
No data found
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Moderately toxic
Potential mutagen
Kidney and liver toxicant
Inhalation may cause asthma, coughing, wheezing, running nose and eyes
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
Incompatible with alkalis
Sensitive to light
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H332
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R20/22
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S36, S61, S60
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
allethrin
French
allethrine
German
Allethrin
Danish
d-trans-allethrin
Italian
alletrina
Spanish
aletrina
Greek
allethrin bioallethrin
Polish
aletryna
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
allethrin

Record last updated: 22/05/2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242