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dicofol (Ref: ENT 23648)
** kelthane ** FW-293 ** decofol ** DTMC ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health - A to Z Index - Home

SUMMARY

Dicofol is an organochloride acaricide that is not approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, volatile and, based on its chemical properties, is unlikely to leach to groundwater. It is moderately persistent in soils but does not normally persist in water. It is moderately toxic to mammals and has a high tendency to bioaccumulate. Dicofol is also an irritant and neurotoxin. It has a moderate toxicity to most biodiversity including honeybees and earthworms.

GENERAL INFORMATION Click here for an explantaion of the general chemical status information
for dicofol

Description: An acaricide used to control many species of phytophagous mite on a range of food and ornamental crops

Example pests controlled: Various mites including Pacific mite; two-spotted spider mite, tropical mites, tomato russet mite, citrus mite, European red mite

Example applications: Vegetables including beans, squash, peppers; Cotton; Cucumbers; Hops; Fruit including apples, pears, citrus, grapes

Efficacy & activity: -

Availability status: Current

Introduction & key dates: 1956, first reported; 1957, first marketed USA

EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):
Status Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Spain
Date inclusion expires Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS) Not applicable
Listed in EU database Yes

Approved for use () or known to be used () in the following European countries: Click to access a note on the approvals information on this site

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

EL

ES

FI

FR

HR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also used in: Australia, USA, India

Chemical structure: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Isomerism Isomeric - the o,p'-substituted isomer is chiral and may have enantiomer-specific activity but, the stereospecific activity of o,p'-dicofol has not been reported.
Chemical formula C14H9Cl5O
Canonical SMILES C1=CC(=CC=C1C(C2=CC=C(C=C2)Cl)(C(Cl)(Cl)Cl)O)Cl
Isomeric SMILES Clc1ccc(cc1)C(O)(c2ccc(Cl)cc2)C(Cl)(Cl)Cl
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey) UOAMTSKGCBMZTC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1S/C14H9Cl5O/c15-11-5-1-9(2-6-11)13(20,14(17,18)19)10-3-7-12(16)8-4-10/h1-8,20H
2D structure diagram/image available? Yes

General status: Click here for further information on the general chemical status information used on this site
Pesticide type Acaricide
Substance group Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity -
Known relevant impurities -
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Non-systemic with contact action
CAS RN 115-32-2
EC number 204-082-0
CIPAC number 123
US EPA chemical code 10501
PubChem CID 8268
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 370.49
PIN (Preferred Identification Name) 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethan-1-ol
IUPAC name 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol
CAS name 4-chloro-α-(4-chlorophenyl)-α-(trichloromethyl)benzenemethanol
Other status information POP candidate; OSPAR pfa/soc; Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards -
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 2A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance Panonychus citri
Tetranychus arabicus
Tetranychus kanzawai
Tetranychus urticae
many others
Physical state White crystals
Related substances & organisms

Formulations:
Property Click here for information on the general product and branding information used on this site Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Agan Chemical
  • Makhteshim-Agan
  • Rohm & Hass
  • Sedagri
Example products using this active
  • Carbax
  • Mitigan
  • Acarin
  • Mitex
  • kelthane
  • Hilfol
UK LERAP status No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details Usually supplied as emulsifiable concentrates and wettable powders.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

for dicofol

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe environmental fate on this site Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with fate data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret environmental fate data
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 0.8 B5 Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 2600000 C4 - Dichloromethane -
2750000 C4 - Methanol -
1350000 C4 - Xylene -
400000 L3 - Acetone -
Melting point (oC) 370.5 A5 -
Boiling point (oC) 193 L3 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) 193 L3 - (open cup) -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 2.00 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P 4.3 L3 High
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.45 L3 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC - - -
Note:
Vapour pressure at 20oC (mPa) 0.25 B5 Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 2.45 X 10-02 H4 Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index Click here for a note on the limitations of the GUS index 0.36 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Click here for a note on the limitations of the SCI-GROW index Value 8.34 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index Click here for a note on the limitations of the potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated High
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 - - -
Surface tension (mN m-1) - - -

Degradation:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance degradation Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with degradation data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance degradation data
General biodegradability -
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 80 L3 Moderately persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 45 DW4 Moderately persistent
DT50 (field) - - -
DT90 (lab at 20oC) - - -
DT90 (field) - - -
DT50 modelling endpoint - - -
Note Best available data DT50 range 40-80 days
Dissipation rate RL50 on plant matrix Value 3.7 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 1.7-5.9 days, 5 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=6
Dissipation rate RL50 on and in plant matrix Value 2.7 R4 -
Note Published literature RL50 range 2.6-2.8 days, 36 field crops, various matrices, n=3
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 26 K3 Slow
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value 3.3 K3 Non-persistent
Note pH sensitive: DT50 85 days at pH 5, 26 minutes at pH 9 (L3)
Water-sediment DT50 (days) 29 K2 Fast
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance adsorption and mobility Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with adsorption and mobility data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance adsorption and mobility
Linear Kd - H3 Non-mobile
Koc 6064
Notes and range Other source: 6945 mL/g sandy soil (H3); 5000 (G3)
Freundlich Kf - - -
Kfoc -
1/n -
Notes and range -
pH sensitivity -

Key metabolites:
Metabolite Formation medium Estimated maximum occurrence fraction 1107/2009 relevancy Click here for further information on 1107/2009 relevancy
2-chlorobenzoic acid (Ref: AE-C500233) Soil   -   -

Other known metabolites:
Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation medium / Rate Estimated maximum occurrence fraction Metabolising enzymes
1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethanol - Soil (Aerobic) - -
o,p-dichlorobenzohydrol o,p-DCBH Soil (Aerobic) - -
3-hydroxy-2,4-dichlorobenzophenone OH-DCBP Soil (Aerobic) - -
2,4-dichlorobenzophenone - Soil (Photolysis) - -
2,4-dichlorobenzhydrol - Soil (Aerobic) - -
3-hydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone 3-OH-DCBP Soil (Aerobic) - -
1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethanole - Soil (Anaerobic) - -
1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethanol
(Ref: FW-152)
- Soil (Aerobic) - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

for dicofol

Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance ecotoxicology Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with ecotoxicology data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret substance ecotoxicology
Bio-concentration factor BCF (l kg-1) 10000 F4 Whole fish High potential
CT50 (days) Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 578 L3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 0.25 L2 Rat, 2 year High
(ppm diet) 5 -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 1418 L3 Coturnix japonica Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) - - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.51 L3 Lepomis macrochirus Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0044 L3 Trout High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.14 L3 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 125 Q2 Daphnia magna Low
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) - - -
Non-target plants - - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.075 L3 Scenedemus subspicatus Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) 0.05 Q2 Unknown species Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) > 50 L3 Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.) Contact acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Oral acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee-1) - - -
Other pollinators (1) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Other pollinators (2) Acute LD50 (worst case from 24 , 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect-1) - - -
Mode of exposure -
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 43.1 L3 Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50 / EC50 / NOEC / % Effect - - -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect Moderately harmful Q2 Parasitoids -
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect Harmful Q2 Predatory mites -
Soil micro-organisms - - -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

for dicofol

General:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe human health and protection issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with human health and protection data Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret human health and protection data
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class) Click here for a note on the limitations of the Cramer class High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 578 L3 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) > 2500 L3 Rabbit -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 5.0 L3 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.002 UK ACP 1993 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg-1 bw day-1) - - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) - - -
Dermal penetration studies (%) - - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 List I; List II - -
Exposure Limits - - -
Exposure Routes Public Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
Occupational Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
European MRLs Click here for the EU MRL pesticide database
Drinking Water Standards - - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l-1) - - -

Health issues:
Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects Cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant

-

Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser Eye irritant Phototoxicant

-

General human health issues Harmful by inhalation, ingestion and through skin contact
IARC group 3 carcinogen; USEPA - possible human carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Inhibition of androgen synthesis

: Yes, known to cause a problem
: No, known not to cause a problem
: Possibly, status not identified
- : No data found

Handling issues:
Property Click here for information on the parameters used to describe substance handling issues Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Click here for information on the primary data sources used to populate this database with data on handling issues Interpretation Click here for information on the way in which we interpret data on handling issues
General Click here for a description of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) codes No information available
CLP classification 2013 Health: H302, H312, H315, H317
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification Click here to view information omn the EU risk phrases Xn - Harmful: R21/22, R43
Xi - Irritant: R38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification Click here to view information omn the EU safety phrases S2, S36/37, S60, S61
WHO Classification II - Moderately hazardous
US EPA Classification (formulation) II, III - Warning - Moderately toxic, Caution - Slightly toxic
UN Number -
Waste disposal & packaging Click here for a description of UN packaging marks -


TRANSLATIONS

for dicofol

Language Name
English dicofol
French dicofol
German Dicofol
Danish dicofol
Italian dicofol
Spanish dicofol
Greek dicofol
Slovenian dikofol
Polish dikofol
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch dicofol

Record last updated: Tuesday 22 May 2018
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk