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Dicofol (Ref: ENT 23648)
Last updated: 03/03/2020
(Also known as: kelthane; FW-293; decofol; DTMC)

SUMMARY
Dicofol is an organochloride acaricide that is not approved for use in the EU. It has a low aqueous solubility, volatile and, based on its chemical properties, is unlikely to leach to groundwater. It is moderately persistent in soils but does not normally persist in water. It is moderately toxic to mammals and has a high tendency to bioaccumulate. Dicofol is also an irritant and neurotoxin. It has a moderate toxicity to most biodiversity including honeybees and earthworms.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
An acaricide used to control many species of phytophagous mite on a range of food and ornamental crops
Example pests controlled
Various mites including Pacific mite; two-spotted spider mite, tropical mites, tomato russet mite, citrus mite, European red mite
Example applications
Vegetables including beans, squash, peppers; Cotton; Cucumbers; Hops; Fruit including apples, pears, citrus, grapes
Efficacy & activity
-
Availability status
Current
Introduction & key dates
1956, first reported; 1957, first marketed USA
UK regulatory status
UK approval status
Not approved
EC Regulation 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414)
EC Directive 91/414 Status
Not approved
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur
Spain
Date inclusion expires
Expired
EU Candidate for substitution (CfS)
Not applicable
Listed in EU database
Yes
Approved for use (✓) or known to be used (#) in the following EU-27 Member States
ATAustria
BEBelgium
BGBulgaria
CYCyprus
CZCzech Republic
DEGermany
DKDenmark
EEEstonia
ELGreece
                 
ESSpain
FIFinland
FRFrance
HRCroatia
HUHungary
IEIreland
ITItaly
LTLithuania
LULuxembourg
                 
LVLatvia
MTMalta
NLNetherlands
PLPoland
PTPortugal
RORomania
SESweden
SISlovenia
SKSlovakia
                 
Also used in
Also used in
Australia, USA, India
Chemical structure
Isomerism
Isomeric - the o,p'-substituted isomer is chiral and may have enantiomer-specific activity but, the stereospecific activity of o,p'-dicofol has not been reported.
Chemical formula
C₁₄H₉Cl₅O
Canonical SMILES
C1=CC(=CC=C1C(C2=CC=C(C=C2)Cl)(C(Cl)(Cl)Cl)O)Cl
Isomeric SMILES
Clc1ccc(cc1)C(O)(c2ccc(Cl)cc2)C(Cl)(Cl)Cl
International Chemical Identifier key (InChIKey)
UOAMTSKGCBMZTC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
International Chemical Identifier (InChI)
InChI=1S/C14H9Cl5O/c15-11-5-1-9(2-6-11)13(20,14(17,18)19)10-3-7-12(16)8-4-10/h1-8,20H
2D structure diagram/image available?
Yes
Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre diagrams
Common Name Relationship Link
dicofol -
General status
Pesticide type
Acaricide
Substance group
Organochlorine
Minimum active substance purity
-
Known relevant impurities
-
Substance origin
Synthetic
Mode of action
Non-systemic with contact action
CAS RN
115-32-2
EC number
204-082-0
CIPAC number
123
US EPA chemical code
10501
PubChem CID
8268
Molecular mass
370.49
PIN (Preferred Identification Name)
2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethan-1-ol
IUPAC name
2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol
CAS name
4-chloro-α-(4-chlorophenyl)-α-(trichloromethyl)benzenemethanol
Other status information
POP candidate; OSPAR pfa/soc; Chemical subject to PIC regulations
Relevant Environmental Water Quality Standards
-
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC)
Not applicable
Herbicide Resistance Classification (WSSA)
Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC)
2A
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC)
Not applicable
Examples of recorded resistance
Panonychus citri, Tetranychus arabicus, Tetranychus kanzawai, Tetranychus urticae, many others
Physical state
White crystals
Related substances & organisms
Formulations
Property
Value
Example manufacturers & suppliers of products using this active now or historically
  • Carbax
  • Mitigan
  • Acarin
  • Mitex
  • kelthane
  • Hilfol
Example products using this active
  • Agan Chemical
  • Makhteshim-Agan
  • Rohm & Hass
  • Sedagri
UK LERAP status
No UK approval for use as a pesticide under EC Regulation 1107/2009
Formulation and application details
Usually supplied as emulsifiable concentrates and wettable powders
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
0.8
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20 °C (mg l⁻¹)
2600000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Dichloromethane
-
2750000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Methanol
-
1350000
C4 C = AGRITOX (click here )
4 = Verified data
Xylene
-
400000
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Acetone
-
Melting point (°C)
370.5
A5 A = EU regulatory and evaluation data as published by EC, EFSA (RAR, DAR & Conclusion dossiers), EMA (e.g. EU Annex III PIC DGD) (EU - Pesticides database; EFSA Scientific Publications )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
-
Boiling point (°C)
193
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Degradation point (°C)
- - -
Flashpoint (°C)
193
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
(open cup)
-
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20 °C
P
2.00 X 1004 Calculated -
Log P
4.3
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
High
Bulk density (g ml⁻¹)
1.45
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
-
Dissociation constant pKa) at 25 °C
- - -
-
Vapour pressure at 20 °C (mPa)
0.25
B5 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
5 = Verified data used for regulatory purposes
Low volatility
Henry's law constant at 25 °C (Pa m³ mol⁻¹)
2.45 X 10-02
H4 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
4 = Verified data
Non-volatile
GUS leaching potential index
0.36 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (μg l⁻¹) for a 1 kg ha⁻¹ or 1 l ha⁻¹ application rate
Value
8.34 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note
-
Potential for particle bound transport index
High Calculated -
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹
- - -
Surface tension (mN m⁻¹)
- - -
Degradation
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
General biodegradability
-
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic)
DT₅₀ (typical)
80
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (lab at 20 °C)
45
DW4 DW = Don Wauchope personal database for Pka data: Wauchope, R. D. and Edwards, J. Dissociation constants for pesticide active ingredients: a database and comparison with predicted values. MS in preparation
4 = Verified data
Moderately persistent
DT₅₀ (field)
- - -
DT₉₀ (lab at 20 °C)
- - -
DT₉₀ (field)
- - -
DT₅₀ modelling endpoint
- - -
Note
Best available data DT₅₀ range 40-80 days
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on plant matrix
Value
3.7
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 1.7-5.9 days, 5 field & undercover grown crops, various matrices, n=6
Dissipation rate RL₅₀ on and in plant matrix
Value
2.7
R4 R = Peer reviewed scientific publications
4 = Verified data
-
Note
Published literature RL₅₀ range 2.6-2.8 days, 36 field crops, various matrices, n=3
Aqueous photolysis DT₅₀ (days) at pH 7
Value
26
K3 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
3 = Unverified data of known source
Slow
Note
-
Aqueous hydrolysis DT₅₀ (days) at 20 °C and pH 7
Value
3.3
K3 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-persistent
Note
pH sensitive: DT₅₀ 85 days at pH 5, 26 minutes at pH 9 (L3)
Water-sediment DT₅₀ (days)
29
K2 K = Research datasets, e.g. Pandora, Demetra
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Fast
Water phase only DT₅₀ (days)
- - -
Soil adsorption and mobility
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Linear
Kd
-
H3 H = The US ARS pesticide properties database (click here )
3 = Unverified data of known source
Non-mobile
Koc
6064
Notes and range
Other source: 6945 mL g⁻¹ sandy soil (H3); 5000 (G3)
Freundlich
Kf
- - -
Kfoc
-
1/n
-
Notes and range
-
pH sensitivity
-
Key metabolites
Metabolite
Formation medium
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
1107/2009 relevancy
2-chlorobenzoic acid (Ref: AE-C500233)
Soil - -
Other known metabolites
Metabolite name and reference
Aliases
Formation medium / Rate
Estimated maximum occurrence fraction
Metabolising enzymes
1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethanol - Soil (Aerobic) - -
o,p-dichlorobenzohydrol o,p-DCBH Soil (Aerobic) - -
3-hydroxy-2,4-dichlorobenzophenone OH-DCBP Soil (Aerobic) - -
3-hydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone 3-OH-DCBP Soil (Aerobic) - -
1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethanol (Ref: FW-152) - Soil (Aerobic) - -
1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethanole - Soil (Anaerobic) - -
2,4-dichlorobenzophenone - Soil (Photolysis) - -
2,4-dichlorobenzhydrol - Soil (Aerobic) - -
ECOTOXICOLOGY
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor
BCF (l kg⁻¹)
10000
F4 F = U.S. EPA ECOTOX database / U.S. EPA pesticide fate database / Miscellaneous WHO documents (US EPA Databases Related to Pesticide Risk Assessment )
4 = Verified data
Whole fish
High potential
CT₅₀ (days)
Not available -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
578
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL
(mg kg⁻¹)
0.25
L2 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Rat 2 year
High
(ppm diet)
5 -
Birds - Acute LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
1418
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Coturnix japonica
Moderate
Birds - Short term dietary (LC₅₀/LD₅₀)
- - -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.51
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Lepomis macrochirus
Moderate
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
0.0044
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Oncorhynchus mykiss
High
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
0.14
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Daphnia magna
Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l⁻¹)
125
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Daphnia magna
Low
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC₅₀, biomass (mg l⁻¹)
- - -
Non-target plants
- - -
- - -
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC₅₀, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.075
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Scenedemus subspicatus
Moderate
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l⁻¹)
0.05
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Unknown species
Moderate
Honeybees (Apis spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
> 50
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Unknown mode acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
-
Mason bees (Osmia spp.)
Contact acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Oral acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg bee⁻¹)
- - -
Other pollinators (1)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Other pollinators (2)
Acute LD₅₀ (worst case from 24, 48 and 72 hour values - μg insect⁻¹)
- - -
Mode of exposure
-
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
43.1
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic NOEC, reproduction (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other soil macro-organisms
Acute LC₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Chronic NOEC (mg kg⁻¹)
- - -
Other arthropod (1)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Moderately harmful
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Parasitoids
-
Other arthropod (2)
LR₅₀ g ha⁻¹
- - -
% Effect
Harmful
Q2 Q = Miscellaneous internet resources
2 = Unverified data of unknown source
Predatory mites
-
Soil micro-organisms
- - -
Mesocosm study data
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
NOEAEC mg l⁻¹
- - -
HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION
General
Property
Value
Source; quality score; and other information
Interpretation
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (Cramer Class)
High (class III) - -
Mammals - Acute oral LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹)
578
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD₅₀ (mg kg⁻¹ body weight)
2500
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rabbit
-
Mammals - Inhalation LC₅₀ (mg l⁻¹)
5.0
L3 L = Pesticide manuals and hard copy reference books / other sources
3 = Unverified data of known source
Rat
-
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints
- - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
0.002
B4 B = UK CRD and ACP evaluation documents / and other Defra (UK) documents (click here )
4 = Verified data
UK ACP 1993
-
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AAOEL - Acute Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹)
- - -
Dermal penetration studies (%)
- - -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464
List I; List II - -
Exposure Routes
Public
Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
Occupational
Low risk to Europeans as no longer approved for use
European MRLs
EU MRL pesticide database 
Drinking Water Standards
- - -
Drinking Water MAC (μg l⁻¹)
- - -
Health issues
Specific human health issues
Carcinogen
Genotoxic
Endocrine disruptor
?Possibly, status not identified
A3 A = Chromosome aberration (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
B3 B = DNA damage/repair (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
C3 C = Gene mutation (EFSA database)
3 = Negative
;
D0 D = Genome mutation (EFSA database)
0 = No data
;
E3 E = Unspecified genotoxicity type (miscellaneous data source)
3 = Negative
?Possibly, status not identified
Reproduction / development effects Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant
No data found
XNo, known not to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Skin sensitiser
Yes, known to cause a problem
Yes, known to cause a problem
?Possibly, status not identified
Eye irritant Phototoxicant  
Yes, known to cause a problem
No data found  
General human health issues
Harmful by inhalation, ingestion and through skin contact
IARC group 3 carcinogen; USEPA - possible human carcinogen
Endocrine issues - Inhibition of androgen synthesis
Handling issues
Property
Value and interpretation
General
No information available
CLP classification 2013
Health: H302, H312, H315, H317
Environment: H400, H410
EC Risk Classification
Xn - Harmful: R21/22, R43
Xi - Irritant: R38
N - Dangerous for the environment: R50, R53
EC Safety Classification
S2, S36/37, S60, S61
WHO Classification
II (Moderately hazardous)
UN Number
-
Waste disposal & packaging
-
TRANSLATIONS
Language
Name
English
dicofol
French
dicofol
German
Dicofol
Danish
dicofol
Italian
dicofol
Spanish
dicofol
Greek
dicofol
Polish
dikofol
Swedish
-
Hungarian
-
Dutch
dicofol

Record last updated: 03/03/2020
Contact: aeru@herts.ac.uk
Please cite as: Lewis, K.A., Tzilivakis, J., Warner, D. and Green, A. (2016) An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(4), 1050-1064. DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242